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Fig. 1 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 1

From: In situ micro-spectroscopic investigation of lignin in poplar cell walls pretreated by maleic acid

Fig. 1

FLIM analysis of lignin fluorescence lifetime in poplar cell walls. Cell wall FLIM are representative FLIM images of cell wall-based on lignin autofluorescence with 405 nm laser excitation, including untreated (a) and treated with different concentrations of maleic acid (d, g, j, m) indicated on the left. Scale bar 10 μm. Overall cell wall lifetime distribution (b, e, h, k, n) shows the overall lignin fluorescence lifetime distributions from all the cell wall layers. The two red curves are the two fitted Gaussian peaks by fitting the overall histogram. They represent the fluorescence lifetime distributions of dense and loose lignin in cell walls. Cell wall layer lifetime distribution (c, f, i, l, o) shows the individual cell wall layer (CC cell corner, CML compound middle lamella, SW secondary wall) lignin fluorescence lifetime distributions. Lignin models show the fluorescence lifetime distributions of lignin model compounds. Each individual four model compounds (ps) and mixtures of biphenyl lignin 4-mer and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) at different ratios (t)

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