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Table 3 Inventory for agrochemical inputs and field operations per ODW tonne of Imola poplar harvested

From: Bioethanol from poplar clone Imola: an environmentally viable alternative to fossil fuel?

  Application rate (kg agrochemical or m3 water) Agricultural machinery Energy inputs
(MJ diesel for field operations or MJ electricity for irrigation)c
Ploughing NA NA Tractor (95 kW), three-furrow plough 1.05E+01 1.12E+01
Harrowing NA NA Tractor (70 kW), harrow 5.04E+00 5.36E+00
Planting NA NA Tractor (60 kW) 2.29E+00 9.75E+00
Drill Rotary machine
Mechanical weed control NA NA Tractor (44 kW), rotary machine 3.11E+01 3.40E+01
Herbicide 3.52E−01 9.39E−02 Tractor (60 kW), sprinkling machine 1.30E+01 9.51E+00
Pesticide 1.31E−01 3.83E−02 Tractor (70 kW), sprinkling machine
N fertilizer 3.33 3.06 Tractor, spraying machine assumed for mechanical applicationa 8.02E+00 7.37E+00
Irrigation system installation NA NA Excavator (12.41 kW) 6.69E−01 5.53E−01
Irrigation 2.37E+02 1.86E+02 Pumpb 2.60E+02 2.14E+02
Harvesting NA NA Harvester 250 kW 8.25E+01 8.25E+01 1.05E+02
  1. NA Not applicable
  2. aFertilizers are manually apply in trails
  3. bElectricity is used for irrigation currently in trial, but an improved energy efficiency for irrigation could be expected at commercial scale
  4. CThe density and low heating value of diesel assumed as 0.83 kg/L and 43.4 MJ/kg, respectively