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Table 5 Soil profiles for Imola plantation at Casale Monferrato

From: Bioethanol from poplar clone Imola: an environmentally viable alternative to fossil fuel?

Depth (cm) Total N (%) Organic C (%) C/N pH (H2O) pH (KCl) Sand (g kg−1) Silt (g kg−1) Clay (g kg−1) Textural class Bulk density (g cm−3) Total porosity (% vol) Field capacity (% vol) Wilting point (% vol) Hydro conductivity (cm h−1)
Soil type a—Calcaric Regosol (Epiloamic, Endoarenic)a
 0–15 0.07 0.69 10.0 7.8 7.3 580 365 55 Sandy loam 1.33 49 16.9 4.7 4.3–5.2
 15–34 0.08 0.83 9.8 7.9 7.2 570 385 45 Sandy loam 1.32 50 16.9 4.3 4.3–5.2
 34–55 0.05 0.56 10.2 7.8 7.3 540 400 60 Sandy loam 1.33 49 7.6 4.5 4.3–5.2
 55–104 0.02 0.25 11.2 8.2 7.6 779 194 27 Loamy sand 1.37 48 9.6 1.7 8.0–29.0
Soil type b—Calcaric Endoskeletic Regosol (Epiloamic, Endoarenic)a
 0–18 0.07 0.72 10.6 7.8 7.4 475 475 50 Sandy loam 1.30 50 18.9 4.2 4.2–4.5
 18–60 0.07 0.75 10.3 7.9 7.3 510 435 55 Sandy loam 1.27 52 18.7 4.8 4.2–4.5
 60–75 0.02 0.22 10.1 8.2 7.7 881 89 30 Sandy 1.38 48 7.4 1.5 10.0–219.0
 75–100 0.00 0.06 8.2 8.1 982 10 8 Sandy 1.47 44 5.9 0.5 10.0–219.0
Weighted average topsoil profile for SCRb
 0–15 0.07 0.71 10.4 7.8 7.37 510 438 52 Sandy loam 1.31 49.67 18.23 4.37 4.23–4.73
Weighted average topsoil profile for VSCRb
 0–15 0.07 0.71 10.3 7.8 7.35 528 420 52 Sandy loam 1.32 49.50 17.90 4.45 4.25–4.85
  1. aBased on soil classification by World Reference Base for Soil Resources [53]
  2. b33.3 % soil a and 66.7 % soil b present in SRC plantation; 50 % soil a and 50 % soil b are present in VSRC plantation