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Table 5 Soil profiles for Imola plantation at Casale Monferrato

From: Bioethanol from poplar clone Imola: an environmentally viable alternative to fossil fuel?

Depth (cm)

Total N (%)

Organic C (%)

C/N

pH (H2O)

pH (KCl)

Sand (g kg−1)

Silt (g kg−1)

Clay (g kg−1)

Textural class

Bulk density (g cm−3)

Total porosity (% vol)

Field capacity (% vol)

Wilting point (% vol)

Hydro conductivity (cm h−1)

Soil type a—Calcaric Regosol (Epiloamic, Endoarenic)a

 0–15

0.07

0.69

10.0

7.8

7.3

580

365

55

Sandy loam

1.33

49

16.9

4.7

4.3–5.2

 15–34

0.08

0.83

9.8

7.9

7.2

570

385

45

Sandy loam

1.32

50

16.9

4.3

4.3–5.2

 34–55

0.05

0.56

10.2

7.8

7.3

540

400

60

Sandy loam

1.33

49

7.6

4.5

4.3–5.2

 55–104

0.02

0.25

11.2

8.2

7.6

779

194

27

Loamy sand

1.37

48

9.6

1.7

8.0–29.0

Soil type b—Calcaric Endoskeletic Regosol (Epiloamic, Endoarenic)a

 0–18

0.07

0.72

10.6

7.8

7.4

475

475

50

Sandy loam

1.30

50

18.9

4.2

4.2–4.5

 18–60

0.07

0.75

10.3

7.9

7.3

510

435

55

Sandy loam

1.27

52

18.7

4.8

4.2–4.5

 60–75

0.02

0.22

10.1

8.2

7.7

881

89

30

Sandy

1.38

48

7.4

1.5

10.0–219.0

 75–100

0.00

0.06

8.2

8.1

982

10

8

Sandy

1.47

44

5.9

0.5

10.0–219.0

Weighted average topsoil profile for SCRb

 0–15

0.07

0.71

10.4

7.8

7.37

510

438

52

Sandy loam

1.31

49.67

18.23

4.37

4.23–4.73

Weighted average topsoil profile for VSCRb

 0–15

0.07

0.71

10.3

7.8

7.35

528

420

52

Sandy loam

1.32

49.50

17.90

4.45

4.25–4.85

  1. aBased on soil classification by World Reference Base for Soil Resources [53]
  2. b33.3 % soil a and 66.7 % soil b present in SRC plantation; 50 % soil a and 50 % soil b are present in VSRC plantation