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Table 2 Experimental results from HTL of yeast biomass; biocrude yield, properties, and product and energy recovery

From: Oleaginous yeast platform for producing biofuels via co-solvent hydrothermal liquefaction

  Non-catalytic HTL, w/o co-solvent Catalytic HTLa, w/o co-solvent Non-catalytic HTL, with co-solventb Catalytic HTLa, with co-solvent
Temperature/reactor type 300 °C, 2-L 300 °C, 2-L 240 °C, 2-chamber 240 °C, 2-chamber
Mass balance
 Biocrude recoveryc, % 49.11 52.61 56.38 57.94
 Solids recovery, % 20.06 21.35 30.65 32.83
 Gaseous recovery, % 1.09 1.18 nd nd
 NVR recovery, % 16.28 10.34 1.46 1.26
 Total mass recovery, % 86.54 85.48 88.49 92.03
 Mass lost, % 13.46 14.52 11.51 7.97
Biocrude composition and properties
 C, % 77.54 77.68 74.67 73.19
 H, % 11.51 11.38 12.56 11.68
 N, % 1.96 2.19 0.51 1.79
 Od, % 12.73 12.91 12.58 14.32
 Oe/C 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.15
 Ne/C 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02
 Ash, % 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.04
 HHV, MJ kg−1 36.55 37.00 36.65 37.01
 ERbiocrude, % 72.14 78.25 83.05 86.20
  1. All HTL runs were performed for 30 min residence time. In case of catalytic runs the initial mass of catalysts were not included for the % mass lost calculation
  2. HHV higher heating value, ER biocrude energy recovery in biocrude
  3. aCatalyst was Na2CO3 (5 % (w/w) of feedstock)
  4. bCo-solvent was isopropanol (1:1, in water)
  5. cBiocrude yield was the combined mass of DCM soluble and acetone soluble compounds in Fig. 7
  6. dBy difference
  7. eAtomic ratio