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Table 2 Butanol production with C. pasteurianum CH4 through batch fermentation using non-VMD-integrated and VMD-integrated processes with and without butyrate addition

From: Bio-butanol production from glycerol with Clostridium pasteurianum CH4: the effects of butyrate addition and in situ butanol removal via membrane distillation

Fermentation conditions Butanol concentration (g L−1) Glycerol conversion (%) Average butanol production rate (g L−1 h−1) Butanol yield (mol butanol/mol glycerol)
Non-VMD-integrated fermentation Without butyrate addition 12.6 ± 0.8 63.4 ± 2.1 0.12 ± 0.02 0.24 ± 0.01
With butyrate addition 12.1 ± 0.6 46.4 ± 0.5 0.14 ± 0.01 0.34 ± 0.04
VMD-integrated fermentation Without butyrate addition 17.1 ± 0.3 96.5 ± 1.8 0.16 ± 0.02 0.23 ± 0.02
With butyrate addition 29.8 ± 1.2 96.8 ± 0.9 0.29 ± 0.05 0.39 ± 0.01