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Table 2 Transcriptional changes on the cellular hallmarks of N starvation

From: Transcriptional program for nitrogen starvation-induced lipid accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Trend Pathway Representative examples Timestamp
Up Pentose phosphate pathway Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 18 min
Purine catabolism Xanthine dehydrogenase
Adenosine deaminase
18–30 min
Urea metabolism Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase
Ornithine transcarbamylase
Agmatine deiminase
Allophanate hydrolase
Urea carboxylase
24–30 min
Glutamine metabolism Glutamine synthetase 30 min
Polyamines oxidation Copper amine oxidase 18 min–2 h
TAG biosynthesis Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 24–45 min
Down FA β-oxidation Acyl-CoA oxidases
2,4 dienoyl-CoA reductase
24 min
Purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis Adenylosuccinate synthase
Uridine 5′-monophosphate synthase
24 min
FA biosynthesis 3-ketoacyl-CoA-synthase
Biotin synthase
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase,
3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase
24–45 min
Translation Translation initiation factors
Translation elongation factors
Release factors
24 min–4 h
Amino acid biosynthesis Threonine deaminase
Shikimate dehydrogenase
Dihydrodipicolinate synthase
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase
24–30 min
Protein folding Chaperonins 45 min
Calvin cycle Triose phosphate isomerase
Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase
45 min
Carbon concentrating mechanism Malate dehydrogenase 45 min
Polyamines biosynthesis Ornithine decarboxylase
Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase
Spermidine synthase
45 min–4 h
Glycerolipid metabolism Phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
45 min–4 h
Chlorophyll biosynthesis Chlorophyll synthase
Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
Geranylgeranyl reductase
Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase
60 min–4 h
Two-component peroxide-detoxifying system NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase
2-Cys peroxiredoxin
2 h
Photosynthesis Ferredoxin
Photosystem I and II proteins
ATP synthase
Cytochrome b6f complex subunits
2–8 h
Glutathione-ascorbate cycle Ascorbate peroxidase
Prohibitin, thioredoxin
4 h
Glycolysis Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase 4 h
  1. Summary of key cellular pathways differentially regulated with representative transcript examples. Timestamp and direction of regulation (trend) are indicated