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Table 2 Transcriptional changes on the cellular hallmarks of N starvation

From: Transcriptional program for nitrogen starvation-induced lipid accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Trend Pathway Representative examples Timestamp
Up Pentose phosphate pathway Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 18 min
Purine catabolism Xanthine dehydrogenase Adenosine deaminase 18–30 min
Urea metabolism Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase Ornithine transcarbamylase Agmatine deiminase Allophanate hydrolase Urea carboxylase 24–30 min
Glutamine metabolism Glutamine synthetase 30 min
Polyamines oxidation Copper amine oxidase 18 min–2 h
TAG biosynthesis Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 24–45 min
Down FA β-oxidation Acyl-CoA oxidases 2,4 dienoyl-CoA reductase 24 min
Purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis Adenylosuccinate synthase Uridine 5′-monophosphate synthase 24 min
FA biosynthesis 3-ketoacyl-CoA-synthase Biotin synthase Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase 24–45 min
Translation Translation initiation factors Translation elongation factors Release factors 24 min–4 h
Amino acid biosynthesis Threonine deaminase Shikimate dehydrogenase Dihydrodipicolinate synthase 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase 24–30 min
Protein folding Chaperonins 45 min
Calvin cycle Triose phosphate isomerase Transketolase Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase 45 min
Carbon concentrating mechanism Malate dehydrogenase 45 min
Polyamines biosynthesis Ornithine decarboxylase Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase Spermidine synthase 45 min–4 h
Glycerolipid metabolism Phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 45 min–4 h
Chlorophyll biosynthesis Chlorophyll synthase Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase Geranylgeranyl reductase Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase 60 min–4 h
Two-component peroxide-detoxifying system NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2-Cys peroxiredoxin Peroxidase 2 h
Photosynthesis Ferredoxin Photosystem I and II proteins ATP synthase Cytochrome b6f complex subunits PsbP 2–8 h
Glutathione-ascorbate cycle Ascorbate peroxidase Prohibitin, thioredoxin 4 h
Glycolysis Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase 4 h
  1. Summary of key cellular pathways differentially regulated with representative transcript examples. Timestamp and direction of regulation (trend) are indicated