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Table 2 Overview of volumetric and areal productivities and photosynthetic efficiencies (PEsunlight) for different photobioreactors outdoors reported in literature

From: Comparison of four outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors

Photobioreactor Optical path (cm) Algal species P x,vol (g L−1 day−1) P x,ground (g m−2 day−1) PEsunlight (%) Author Location
Horizontal tubular 4.3 Nannochloropsis sp. 0.51–0.76 13–19.5a 2.3–3.5a [19] Italy
Horizontal tubular 9.0 Nannochloropsis gaditana 0.12–0.20 10.8–18.0 0.7–1.04a [15] Almeria Spain
Horizontal tubular 4.6 Nannochloropsis sp. 0.30–0.85 5.8–15.7 1.2–1.8 This study The Netherlands
Vertical panel 1.2 Nannochloropsis sp. 0.61–1.45 5.8–10.2 2.0–3.5a [17] Artificial light
Vertical tubular 10.4 Scenedesmus obliquus ? 21.76 2.5a [20] South Spain
Vertical tubular 5 Nannochloropsis gaditana 0.59 15.4 [18] Almeria Spain
Vertical tubular 4.6 Nannochloropsis sp. 0.31–0.71 10.6–24.4 2.4–4.2 This study The Netherlands
Raceway pond 30 Scenedesmus obliquus 0.03 8.26 0.95a [20] South Spain
Raceway pond 30 Muriellopsis sp. 0.04 8–20 0.97–0.69a [21] South Spain
Raceway pond 12 Nannochloropsis salina 0.2 24.5 [23] Israel
Raceway pond 11 Nannochloropsis gaditana 0.09–0.19 22.4 [22] Almeria Spain
Raceway pond 20 Nannochloropsis sp. 0.03–0.08 6.2–14.0 0.5–1.5 This study The Netherlands
Flat panel 1.3–17 Nannochloropsis sp. 1.7–0.25 11–22 [5] Israel
Flat panel 10 Nannochloropsis sp. 0.27 14.2 [28] Israel
Flat panel 5 Nannochloropsis gaditana 0.16–0.36 8–18 1.74–0.31a [15] Almeria Spain
Flat panel 4.5 Nannochloropsis sp. 0.36 15.8 0.96a [16] Italy
Flat panel 5 Nannochloropsis oculata 0.15–0.37   [29] Colorado, USA
Flat panel 2 Nannochloropsis sp. 0.9–1.2 20.5–27.5 2.7–3.8 This study The Netherlands
  1. The values for the raceway pond and FP for this study were collected in summer 2013. For both tubular photobioreactors average productivities and photosynthetic efficiencies were used to indicate the range of productivities and photosynthetic efficiencies; average data were obtained over the period from July to December 2013
  2. aCalculated based on the illuminated area, not considering the ground area occupied by the photobioreactor