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Table 1 Summary of pretreatment methods

From: Lignocellulose conversion for biofuel: a new pretreatment greatly improves downstream biocatalytic hydrolysis of various lignocellulosic materials

Pretreatment methods Conditions Advantage Disadvantage Reference
Steam explosion 1.3 Mpa
190 °C
15 min
Hemicelluloses removal Acid catalyst needed
Formation of inhibitors
AFEX Anhydrous ammonia
60–100 °C
250–300 psi
Lignin removal
Cellulose decrystallization
High energy [23]
Dilute acids HCl/H2SO4
130–200 °C
Hemicelluloses removal Formation of inhibitors
Neutralization step
Ionic-liquid 90–200 °C
1–24 h
Break-up cellulose crystalline Expensive [25]
80 °C, <2 h
Effectively lignin removal Hemicellulose loss Present work