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Table 1 Summary of pretreatment methods

From: Lignocellulose conversion for biofuel: a new pretreatment greatly improves downstream biocatalytic hydrolysis of various lignocellulosic materials

Pretreatment methods Conditions Advantage Disadvantage Reference
Steam explosion 1.3 Mpa 190 °C 15 min Hemicelluloses removal Acid catalyst needed Formation of inhibitors [22]
AFEX Anhydrous ammonia 60–100 °C 250–300 psi Lignin removal Cellulose decrystallization High energy [23]
Dilute acids HCl/H2SO4 130–200 °C Hemicelluloses removal Formation of inhibitors Neutralization step [24]
Ionic-liquid 90–200 °C 1–24 h Break-up cellulose crystalline Expensive [25]
HPAC CH3COOH:H2O2 80 °C, <2 h Effectively lignin removal Hemicellulose loss Present work