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Table 1 The application of bioelectrochemical reduction

From: Extracellular electron transfer from cathode to microbes: application for biofuel production

Application Product Reaction conditions Key outcomes Ref.
Direct reduction Cr6+ → Cr3+ G. sulfurreducens, −600 mV vs. Ag/AgCl U(VI) was removed and recovered using poised electrode [19]
Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, −500 mV vs. Ag/AgCl Lactate and the electrode as the electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction [18]
Fumarate → succinate G. sulfurreducens, −500 mV vs. Ag/AgCl Fumarate reduction dependent on current supply [48]
Shewanella species in biocathode of microbial fuel cell Similar comparison under chromate reducing condition [102]
Nitrate reduction Nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms at +197 mV vs. SHE Simultaneous occurrence of nitrification and denitrification at a biocathode [49]
Denitrifying microorganisms at −123 mV vs. SHE Long-term stability, carbon-free operation [51]
Indirect reduction Caproate and caprylate production from acetate Acetate fed at −0.9 V vs. NHE In situ-produced hydrogen as electron donor, low concentration and reaction rates [90]
Ethanol production from acetate −550 mV vs. NHE, artificial mediator tested Methyl viologen increased ethanol production but inhibited butyrate and methane formation, still hydrogen was coproduced at the cathode [81]
Alcohol formation from glycerol Open circuit operation Changes in microbial community and product outcomes after current supply [87]
Reduction of acetate and butyrate to mainly alcohols and acetone −820 mV vs. Ag/AgCl Halotolerant mixed sulfate-reducing bacteria culture [92]
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from glucose 512 mV, the biocathode coupled to a bioanode in an MEC Microaerophilic microenvironment at cathode enhanced PHA synthesis as alternative pathway to re-oxidize the NADH [94]
Butyraldehyde to butanol Immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase at −400 mV vs. Ag/AgCl Reduction to alcohol by current without supplement of NADH [88]
Hydrogen production −700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl Increased cathodic hydrogen efficiency on microbial biocathode based on a naturally selected mixed culture [103]
500 mV, the biocathode coupled to a bioanode in an MEC Operated for a long period with high current density but phosphate precipitation on the biocathode [104]
−700 mV vs. SHE Desulfovibrio sp. as a dominant microorganism in the biocathode [22]
Methane production −700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl Methane production directly from current [53]
−550 mV vs. NHE CO2 reduction to CH4, need to reduce the internal resistance [105]
Improved 1,3-propandiol production from glycerol −900 mV vs. SHE Electrical current as the driving force for a mixed population fermenting glycerol in the cathode [93]
Improved butanol production from glucose +0.045 V vs. SHE Increased alcohol production in electrofermentation with increased a ratio NADH/NAD+ [24]
Electrofuel from CO2 and electricity Butyrate −800 mV vs. SHE Production of organic compounds from CO2 by hydrogen driven by a cathode [100]
Acetate −590 mV vs. SHE Higher acetate production than on unmodified graphite [99]
Acetate, 2-oxobutyrate −400 mV vs. SHE The production of organic acids by current consumption [106]