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Table 1 Attachment materials (with smooth surface) and their surface physico-chemical properties using cell attachment tests

From: Effects of the surface physico-chemical properties and the surface textures on the initial colonization and the attached growth in algal biofilm

Attachment material Liquid contact angle (°) Surface energy (mJ m−2)
Water Glycerol Tetradecanea
Metals
 Aluminum 96.6 89.6 <2 168.0
 Brass 89.4 94.2 <2 193.0
 Stainless steel 80.9 80.3 <2 43.1
Plastics
 Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 84.7 78.2 23.4 36.7
 Nylon 59.6 45.2 15.5 43.2
 Polyethylene terephthalate (PETG) 68.5 69.0 <2 44.0
 Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) 78.6 80.0 11.9 40.5
 Delrin acetal resin 72.1 68.3 9.3 42.5
 Polyester 82.7 74.2 6.3 41.0
 Polylactic acid (PLA) 80.8 88.1 24.6 38.7
 Polycarbonate 86.1 77.6 <2 46.0
 Extruded acrylic 76.8 61.7 6.2 44.7
 Extruded nylon 72.7 57.0 9.1 45.8
 High-density polyethylene (HDPE) 88.0 73.9 3.0 35.3
 Polypropylene 91.5 81.0 16.6 32.6
 Polystyrene 75.8 76.8 <2 34.0
 Low density polyethylene (LDPE) 89.1 60.4 <2 33.6
 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 88.3 77.5 <2 33.0
 Rexolite polystyrene 51.8 140.3 <2 38.3
 Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene 84.2 63.1 <2 37.2
Rubbers
 Buna-N rubber 38.2 92.0 30.6 31.4
 Neoprene rubber 92.6 92.1 24.1 39.8
 NORYL PPO 80.2 83.4 3.9 52.5
 Gum rubber 59.6 81.0 26.9 31.8
 Butyl rubber 92.9 93.0 33.8 29.9
 Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) 110.4 85.2 32.1 34.9
 Epichlorohydrin (ECH) rubber 55.5 58.6 <2 43.2
 Hypalon rubber 71.2 83.5 16.6 57.9
 Latex rubber 92.9 124.2 28.2 36.3
 Polyurethane 89.8 83.1 <2 37.5
 Santoprene rubber 89.8 95.8 43.5 26.1
 Styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber 84.2 89.0 23.8 44.9
 Silicone rubber 58.2 85.2 12.3 21.3
  1. aTetradecane contact angles with <2° were below the measurement limit