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Table 2 Reduction in the environmental impacts due to enzyme recycling

From: Life cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

Process configuration Reduction of environmental impacts
GWP [%] EP [%] AP [%] POCP [%]
Base case 19 20 13 20
Highest yield at 20 % DM 18 18 14 21
Highest yield at 30 % DM 20 17 14 22
  1. Impacts of an enzyme recycling rate of 25 % were compared with the impacts of no enzyme recycling. This was done for the: a. base case (detoxification with \({\mathrm{Na}_2\mathrm{S}_2\mathrm{O}_4}\), PSSF at 12 % DM and 30 °C; b. process configuration with the highest yield at 20 % DM (washing of slurry, PSSF at 40 \(^\circ\)C); c. process configuration with the highest yield at 30 % DM (adaptation of yeast + extra nutrients, SHF at 30 °C)