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Table 3 Reduction in the environmental impacts due to on-site enzyme production

From: Life cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

Process configuration Reduction of environmental impacts
GWP [%] EP [%] AP [%] POCP [%]
Base case 59 53 32 67
Highest yield at 20 % DM 62 68 44 77
Highest yield at 30 % DM 65 69 51 85
  1. Impacts of on-site enzyme production were compared with the impacts of off-site enzyme production. This was done for the: a. base case (detoxification with \({\mathrm{Na}_2\mathrm{S}_2\mathrm{O}_4}\), PSSF at 12 % DM and 30 \(^\circ\)C); b. process configuration with the highest yield at 20 % DM (washing of slurry, PSSF at 40 \(^\circ\)C); c. process configuration with the highest yield at 30 % DM (adaptation of yeast + extra nutrients, SHF at 30 \(^\circ\)C)