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Table 4 Global warming potentials (GWP) due to projected changes in the Danish energy mix

From: Life cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

Process configuration Fossil share in energy mix
80 % 67 % 50 %
GWP [kg\({_{\mathrm{CO}_{2^\mathrm{{-eq}}}}}\) L\({_\mathrm{ethanol}^{-1}}\)]
Base case 3.4 3.0 2.4
Highest yield at 20 % DM 2.7 2.4 1.9
Highest yield at 30 % DM 3.1 2.7 2.1
  1. This was done for the: a. base case (detoxification with \({\mathrm{Na}_2\mathrm{S}_2\mathrm{O}_4}\), PSSF at 12 % DM and 30 \(^\circ\)C); b. process configuration with the highest yield at 20 % DM (washing of slurry, PSSF at 40 \(^\circ\)C); c. process configuration with the highest yield at 30 % DM (adaptation of yeast + extra nutrients, SHF at 30 \(^\circ\)C)