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Fig. 3 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 3

From: Energy-efficient biomass processing with pulsed electric fields for bioeconomy and sustainable development

Fig. 3

Figure adapted from [30]

Schematic representation of processes with cells exposed to pulsed electric fields. The possible outcomes depend on the pulsed electric field protocol (amplitude, shape, number, and duration of pulses) and additional cell manipulation techniques, e.g., (di) electrophoresis. Exposure of cells to electric fields leads to increased cell membrane permeability due to electroporation. This phenomena can be used in biorefineries for killing of cells, fusing cells, extraction or introduction of small and large molecules into the cells

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