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Table 1 Reversible and irreversible electroporation pathways in biorefinery applications

From: Energy-efficient biomass processing with pulsed electric fields for bioeconomy and sustainable development

Biorefinery application Electroporation mode
Delivery of genes to improve feedstock phenotype and resistance Reversible
Dehydration Irreversiblea
High-value products extraction Irreversible
Biomass pretreatment Irreversiblea
Conversion into biofuels Reversible and irreversible
Waste treatment Irreversible
  1. aThe exact mechanism by which PEF affects lignocellulose biomass is not clear