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Table 2 Carbon balance from fermentation of 60 g/L cellulose (345 mM glucose equivalents)

From: Simultaneous achievement of high ethanol yield and titer in Clostridium thermocellum

Compound mM % C3 (pyruvate)a
Ethanol 520.9 75.5
Ex amino acid carbonb 208.2 10.1
Biomass carbon 148.3 7.2
Ex protein carbonc 50.8 2.1
Acetate 11.9 1.7
Ex sugard 10.4 1.5
Isobutanol 3.5 1.0
Malate 3.0 0.4
Lactate 2.0 0.3
Glucose 0.6 0.1
Total   99.8
  1. aTo facilitate comparison, carbon-containing compounds were expressed in terms of C3 equivalents. For example, one C3 equivalent (i.e., pyruvate) is required to produce one ethanol
  2. bEx amino acid carbon; amount of carbon in extracellular free amino acids
  3. cEx protein carbon; amount of carbon in extracellular (secreted) protein
  4. dEx sugar; extracellular sugar, including all the soluble glucan and xylan