Skip to main content

Table 2 Yield and chemical composition of brown and red strains from K. alvarezii before and after treatment with 6 % (w/v) KOH and subsequently extracted with hot water (carrageenan and residue production)

From: Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process

Samples Strain Yield of sample (g/100 g of material) (%) Galactan (%) Glucan (%) Ashes (%) Proteins (%) Insoluble aromatics (%) Sulfate groups (%)
Components of samples (% on pulp basic)
Untreated Brown 100 33.0 ± 0.4 12.7 ± 0.5 14.6 ± 0.1 3.8 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.1 9.6 ± 0.2
Treated with KOH 89.3 ± 0.9 32.4 ± 0.8 13.5 ± 0.6 21.7 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.2 10.4 ± 0.3
Residue 23.0 ± 0.5 7.2 ± 0.3 54.6 ± 0.4 14.9 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 3.9 ± 0.1 8.4 ± 0.1
Carrageenan 63.5 ± 0.6 42.6 ± 0.9 nd 24.2 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.1 13.3 ± 0.2
Untreated Red 100 31.3 ± 0.8 13.5 ± 0.1 16.0 ± 0.2 2.5 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.2 10.1 ± 0.3
Treated with KOH 89.5 ± 0.5 35.6 ± 1.2 14.1 ± 0.7 21.6 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.2 10.6 ± 0.5
Residue 27.8 ± 1.2 9.7 ± 0.2 50.2 ± 1.2 10.1 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 3.2 ± 0.5 8.7 ± 0.1
Carrageenan 60.0 ± 1.5 46.6 ± 1.1 nd 28.5 ± 0.3 0.3 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.3 14.0 ± 0.3
Commercial carrageenan 32.5 ± 0.8 0.4 ± 0.1 34.8 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.1 12.8 ± 0.1
Components of samples (% of original material)
Untreated Brown 100 33.0 ± 0.4 12.7 ± 0.5 14.6 ± 0.1 3.8 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.1 9.6 ± 0.2
Treated with KOH 89.3 ± 0.9 28.9 ± 0.8 12.0 ± 0.6 19.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 1.9 ± 0.2 9.3 ± 0.3
Residue 23.0 ± 0.5 1.7 ± 0.3 12.6 ± 0.4 3.4 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 1.9 ± 0.1
Carrageenan 63.5 ± 0.6 27.0 ± 0.9 nd 15.4 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.1 8.4 ± 0.2
Untreated Red 100 31.3 ± 0.8 13.5 ± 0.1 16.6 ± 0.2 2.5 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.2 10.1 ± 0.3
Treated with KOH 89.5 ± 0.5 31.8 ± 1.2 12.6 ± 0.7 19.3 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.2 9.5 ± 0.5
Residue 27.8 ± 1.2 2.7 ± 0.2 13.9 ± 1.2 2.8 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.1
Carrageenan 60.0 ± 1.5 28.0 ± 1.1 nd 17.1 ± 0.3 0.2 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.3 8.4 ± 0.3
  1. Contents present in percentage (g/100 g of basic and original material in dry basis)
  2. Cultivation for May 2013, commercial carrageenan = Sigma and nd = not detected. All reported data are the average values followed by their standard deviations. Pulp basic (data representing the biomass without considering a mass balance) and original material (data corrected considering the yield of the process, i.e., performing a mass balance)