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Table 3 Yield and metals composition of brown and red strains from K. alvarezii before and after treatment with 6 % (w/v) KOH and subsequently extracted with hot water (carrageenan and residue production)

From: Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process

Samples Strains Yield of sample (g/100 g of material) (%) Potassium (mg g−1) Calcium (mg g−1) Sodium (mg g−1)
Components of samples (mg g −1 on pulp basic)
Untreated Brown 100 30.5 ± 0.01 2.7 ± 0.01 5.1 ± 0.01
Treated with KOH 89.3 ± 0.9 42.7 ± 0.01 3.4 ± 0.01 1.5 ± 0.08
Residue 23.0 ± 0.5 22.3 ± 0.07 3.8 ± 0.06 2.3 ± 0.04
Carrageenan 63.5 ± 0.6 53.5 ± 0.01 2.7 ± 0.01 1.2 ± 0.01
Untreated Red 100 28.6 ± 0.01 3.3 ± 0.02 4.3 ± 0.05
Treated with KOH 89.5 ± 0.5 36.5 ± 0.02 2.7 ± 0.01 1.3 ± 0.04
Residue 27.8 ± 1.2 18.2 ± 0.04 4.0 ± 0.01 2.0 ± 0.06
Carrageenan 60.0 ± 1.5 48.6 ± 0.02 2.6 ± 0.01 1.2 ± 0.01
Commercial carrageenan 72.8 ± 0.3 25.8 ± 0.2 8.6 ± 0.1
Components of samples (mg g −1 of original material)
Untreated Brown 100 30.5 ± 0.01 2.7 ± 0.01 5.1 ± 0.01
Treated with KOH 89.3 ± 0.9 38.1 ± 0.01 3.0 ± 0.01 1.3 ± 0.08
Residue 23.0 ± 0.5 5.1 ± 0.07 0.9 ± 0.06 0.5 ± 0.04
Carrageenan 63.5 ± 0.6 34.0 ± 0.01 1.7 ± 0.01 0.8 ± 0.01
Untreated Red 100 28.6 ± 0.01 3.3 ± 0.02 4.3 ± 0.05
Treated with KOH 89.5 ± 0.5 32.7 ± 0.02 2.4 ± 0.01 1.2 ± 0.04
Residue 27.8 ± 1.2 5.0 ± 0.04 1.1 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.06
Carrageenan 60.0 ± 1.5 29.1 ± 0.02 1.5 ± 0.01 0.7 ± 0.01
  1. Contents present in mass (milligrams/grams of basic and original material in dry basis)
  2. Cultivation for May 2013 and commercial carrageenan = Sigma. All reported data are the average values followed by their standard deviations. Pulp basic (data representing the biomass without considering a mass balance) and original material (data corrected considering the yield of the process, i.e., performing a mass balance)