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Table 1 Major biorefinery unit operation steam users per liter of jet fuel produced

From: Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: techno-economic assessment

Process Steam usage (kg) Steam temperature (°C), pressure (kPa)
Pretreatment 2.1 280, 1310
Pressure swing distillation column (1) 0.4 280, 1310
Pressure swing distillation column (2) 1.1 280, 1310
Ethanol to ethylene 1.3 580, 450