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Table 9 Hydrocarbon biofuel production reaction network

From: Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: techno-economic assessment

Step Chemistry Cumulative theoretical yield Cumulative practical yield
Pretreatment and hydrolysis \({\text{Wood}}\;{ + }\;{\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \to {\text{Sugars}}\;{ + }\;{\text{Lignin}}\) 722 kg Sugars 640 kg Sugars
Fermentation \({\text{C}}_{ 6} {\text{H}}_{ 12} {\text{O}}_{ 6} \to 3 {\text{CH}}_{ 3} {\text{COOH}}\) 722 kg Acetic acid 580 kg Acetic acid
Hydrotreat (1) \({\text{CH}}_{ 3} {\text{COOH}} + 2 {\text{H}}_{ 2} \to {\text{CH}}_{ 3} {\text{CH}}_{ 2} {\text{OH}} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}}\) 554 kg Ethanol 450 kg Ethanol
Alcohol dehydration \({\text{CH}}_{ 3} {\text{CH}}_{ 2} {\text{OH}} \to {\text{C}}_{ 2} {\text{H}}_{ 4} {\text{ + H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}}\) 337 kg Ethylene 260 kg Ethylene
Oligomerization \(n {\text{C}}_{ 2} {\text{H}}_{ 4} \to {\text{CH}}_{ 3} {\text{CH}}_{ 2} - \left( {{\text{CH}}_{ 2} {\text{CH}}_{ 2} } \right)_{n - 2} - {\text{CH = CH}}_{ 2}\) 337 kg Distillate 250 kg Distillate
Hydrotreat (2) \({\text{CH}}_{ 3} {\text{CH}}_{ 2} - \left( {{\text{CH}}_{ 2} {\text{CH}}_{ 2} } \right)_{n - 2} - {\text{CH = CH}}_{ 2} {\text{ + H}}_{ 2} \to {\text{CH}}_{ 3} {\text{CH}}_{ 2} - \left( {{\text{CH}}_{ 2} {\text{CH}}_{ 2} } \right)_{n - 2} - {\text{CH}}_{ 2} {\text{CH}}_{ 3}\) 341 kg Polymer jet (450 L t−1) 250 kg Polymer jet (330 L t−1)
  1. The major process steps are shown with the relevant chemical equations. Theoretical and practical yields shown use a basis of one bone dry tonne of poplar. Yields are based on the literature and conservative assumptions in collaboration with our industry partners