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Table 2 Comparison of integration of hydrothermal treatment and gas biofuels production in the literature and this study

From: Continuous production of biohythane from hydrothermal liquefied cornstalk biomass via two-stage high-rate anaerobic reactors

Feedstock Products HTL process Conditions Fermentation process HRT (day) Gas yield COD removal (%) Reference
Algae Methane Batch (stainless steel cylinder), 100 °mL 0–1.5 h, 260–320 °C Batch, 37 °C, Liquid products 62 44–61 Tommaso et al. [35]
Swine manure Methane Batch, 37 °C, Liquid products 65 ~150–175 mL/g COD 45–55 Zhou et al. [58]
Sunflower stalks Methane Batch 30 min, 160 °C H2SO4 Batch, 37 °C, Mixture 45 278 mL/g VS   Hesami et al. [19]
Sugar beet pulp Methane Batch (thermostatic reactor), 600 mL 20 min, 160 °C Batch, 37 °C, Mixture 25 502.5 mL/g VS   Ziemin´ski et al. [17]
Wheat straw Methane Batch (cylindrical steel tank), 6.2 L 1 h, 160 °C, NaOH Batch, 35 °C, Mixture 31 224 mL/g TS   Sambusiti et al. [15]
Rice straw Methane Batch (hydrothermal
reactor), 131 mL
10 min, 200 °C, Batch, 35 °C, Mixture 60 132.7 mL/g VS   Chandra et al. [18]
Beech wood Methane Batch (Inconel-625 vessel), 5 mL 7–240 s, 380 °C Batch, 50 °C, Liquid products 35 Yoshida et al. [28]
Laminaria japonica Hydrogen Batch (stainless steel vessel), 5 L 20 min, 170 °C Batch, 35 °C, Mixture 3.5 109.6 mL/g COD   Jung et al. [38]
Wheat straw Hydrogen 15 min, 180 °C Continuous (CSTR, UASB AF), 70 °C, Liquid products 1–3 212 mL/g sugar   Kongjan et al. [39]
Sunflower stalks Hydrogen Batch (Stainless autoclave), 1 L 1 h, 170 °C, HCl Batch, 35 °C, Liquid products 30 0 Monlau et al. [33]
Gelidium amansii Hydrogen Batch (high-pressure reactor) 30 L 15 min, 150 °C H2SO4 Batch, 35 °C, Liquid products 1.25 0 Parka et al. [36]
Switchgrass Hydrogen Batch (steam explosion
reactor), 4 L
10 min, 190 °C Continuous (UASB), 37 °C, Liquid products 0.42 288 mL/g COD Veeravalli et al. [37]
Cornstalk Hythane Batch (High-pressure reactor), 1.8 L 0 min, 260 °C Continuous(UASB, PBR), 37 °C, Liquid products Hydrogen, 0.5
Methane, 0.5
H2, 0–146 mL/g COD CH4, 158–302 
mL/g COD
H2, 19 − 2
CH4, 93 − 67
This study