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Table 4 Bacterial and archaeal families in the fermentation reactors

From: Continuous production of biohythane from hydrothermal liquefied cornstalk biomass via two-stage high-rate anaerobic reactors

Families Function Taxonomy (phylum, class) Metabolic features Reference
Acetobacteraceae Acidogenesis Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria Ferment glucose and produce acetate [59]
Anaerolineaceae Acidogenesis
Detoxification
Chloroflexi, Anaerolineae Some species ferment glucose; major metabolic end products are VFAs and hydrogen; involved in phenol degradation [60, 61]
Bacillaceae Acidogenesis
Detoxification
Firmicutes, Bacilli Some species produce acid from carbohydrates; degrades polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [62]
Bacteriovoracaceae Unclear Proteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria Invade the periplasm of their prey where they grow and replicate [63]
Caldilineaceae Acidogenesis Chloroflexi, Caldilineae Some species ferment glucose; major metabolic end products succinate, lactate, acetate, CO2 and traces of hydrogen [64]
Christensenellaceae Acidogenesis Firmicutes, Clostridia Some species ferment glucose; major metabolic end products are acetate and butyrate [65]
Comamonadaceae Acidogenesis
Detoxification
Proteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria Some species ferment pyruvate and glucose; degrade polycyclic aromatic compounds [59]
Clostridiaceae Acidogenesis
Detoxification
Firmicutes, Clostridia Some species ferment glucose; metabolic end products are hydrogen, butyrate, acetate and lactate; ferment methoxylated aromatics to acids, and degrade the aromatic amino acids [62, 66, 67]
Desulfovibrionaceae Acetogenesis
Detoxification
Proteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria Some species utilize lactate and pyruvate; Major metabolic end products are acetate, hydrogen and CO2; degrade aromatic aldehydes and furfural [50, 68]
Geobacteraceae Detoxification Proteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria Aromatic compounds are used by several species [50]
Lachnospiraceae Acidogenesis Firmicutes, Clostridia Some species ferment glucose; major metabolic end products are butyrate, succinate, acetate, lactate, formate and hydrogen [69]
Leuconostocaceae Acidogenesis Firmicutes, Bacilli Some species are heterofermentative and produce lactate [69]
Nitrospiraceae Unclear Nitrospirae, Nitrospira Some species consume for sulfate reduction [53]
Peptococcaceae Acidogenesis Firmicutes, Clostridia Fermentative, and syntrophy with hydrogenotrophs [50, 62]
Planococcaceae Acidogenesis Firmicutes, Bacilli Some species ferment glucose [69]
Porphyromonadaceae Acidogenesis Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidia Some species ferment glucose; end products of glucose fermentation are acetate, hydrogen, and CO2 [53]
Propionibacteriaceae Acidogenesis Actinobacteria, Actinobacteria Ferment glucose; Main metabolic end products is propionic acid [70]
Pseudomonadaceae Detoxification Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria Some spices degradation the aromatic compounds [71]
Ruminococcaceae Acidogenesis Firmicutes, Clostridia Ferment glucose; metabolic end products are hydrogen and VFAs [21]
Spirochaetaceae Acetate-oxidizing Spirochaetae, Spirochaetes Major metabolic end products are hydrogen and CO2 [51]
Streptococcaceae Acidogenesis Firmicutes, Bacilli Carbohydrates are fermented to produce mainly lactic acid [62]
Synergistaceae Acidogenesis Synergistetes, Synergistia Some species ferment glucose and organic acids; Metabolic end products are acetate, CO2 and hydrogen; Co-culture with the hydrogenotrophic methanogens [72, 73]
Syntrophaceae Acetogenesis Proteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria Propionate and butyrate-utilizing bacteria; Co-culture with hydrogenotrophic methanogens [74, 75]
Syntrophomonadaceae Acetogenesis Firmicutes, Clostridia Some species utilize fatty acids of 4-18 carbon atoms; Syntrophic association with hydrogenotrophic methanogens [69, 76, 77]
Syntrophorhabdaceae Acetogenesis
Detoxification
Proteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria Syntrophic degradation of aromatic compounds, and produce acetate and hydrogen [50]
Thermotogaceae Acidogenesis Thermotogae, Thermotogae Able to ferment carbohydrates and peptides [78]
Methanobacteriaceae Methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Methanobacteria Hydrogenotrophic methanogens [52]
Methanoregulaceae Methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Methanomicrobia Hydrogenotrophic methanogens [53]
Methanosaetaceae Methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Methanomicrobia Acetoclastic methanogens [52]
Methanosarcinaceae Methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Methanomicrobia Hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens [52]
Methanospirillaceae Methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Methanomicrobia Hydrogenotrophic methanogens [52]