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Table 5 Optimal environmental parameters for a stable anaerobic digestion

From: Biomass waste-to-energy valorisation technologies: a review case for banana processing in Uganda

Environment parameter Stage of anaerobic digestion process Optimal range References
pH Hydrolysis and acidogenesis (two-phrase anaerobic digestion) 5.5–6.5 [91]
Methanogenesis (two-phase anaerobic digestion) 6.5–8.5 [15, 91]
Mixed reactor liquid (one-phase anaerobic digestion) 6.7–7.8 [27, 42]
(PH2) (Hydrogen Partial pressure) Mixed reactor liquid (one-phase anaerobic digestion) 10−4–10−5 atm [27, 42]
Alkalinity Mixed reactor liquid (one-phase anaerobic digestion) 1200–2300 mg CaCO3 per litre [118]
C:N ratio Mixed reactor liquid (one-phase anaerobic digestion) 20–30 [15, 38]
NH3-Nitrogen Mixed reactor liquid (one-phase anaerobic digestion) 50–200 mg per litre [118]
Free NH3 Mixed reactor liquid (one-phase anaerobic digestion) <150 mg per litre [118]
H2S Mixed reactor liquid (one-phase anaerobic digestion) <200 mg per litre [54]
Heavy metals Mixed reactor liquid (one-phase anaerobic digestion) <10−4 M [27]