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Table 2 Key WTWa parameters for corn and corn stover ethanol pathways

From: Well-to-wake analysis of ethanol-to-jet and sugar-to-jet pathways

Parameter (unit) Corn Corn stover
Corn farming/corn stover collection (per dry ton of corn or corn stover, except as noted)
 Direct energy use (MJ) 466a 224b
 N fertilizer application (kg) 19.4b 7.72b
 P fertilizer application (kg) 6.70b 2.20a
 K fertilizer application (kg) 6.95b 13.2a
 Limestone application (kg) 52.8a  
 N2O conversion rate of N fertilizer (%) 1.525a  
 Water consumption (kL) 25.4c 0c
Parameter (unit)c Dry mill w/o CO extraction Dry mill w/CO extraction Wet mill Corn stover
Corn/corn stover ethanol production
 Ethanol yield (L/dry ton of corn or corn stover) 486b 471b 496b 375a
 Ethanol plant fossil energy use (MJ/L of ethanol) 7.49a 7.36b 13.2a  
 Water consumption (L/L of ethanol) 2.7c 2.7c 3.92c 5.35c
 DGS yield (dry kg/L of ethanol) 0.675a 0.646b   
 Corn gluten meal yield (dry kg/L of ethanol)    0.147a  
 Corn gluten feed yield (dry kg/L of ethanol)    0.632a  
 CO yield (dry kg/L of ethanol)   0.023b 0.117a  
 Electricity yield (kWh/dry ton of corn stover)     226a
 Enzyme use (g/dry kg of corn or corn stover) 1.04a 1.04b 1.04a 15.5a
 Yeast use (g/dry kg of corn or corn stover) 0.36a 0.36b 0.36a 2.49a
 Corn ethanol shares (%) 18b 73b 9b  
  1. aBased on Wang et al. [37]
  2. bBased on Wang et al. [36]
  3. cBased on Lampert et al. [40]