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Table 2 Main financial parameters for economic assessment

From: Techno-economic analysis and climate change impacts of sugarcane biorefineries considering different time horizons

Parameter Value Reference
Minimum acceptable rate of return (per year) 12% Watanabe et al. [25]
Project life span (years) 25 Watanabe et al. [25]
Depreciation rate (linear, 10 years) 10% Watanabe et al. [25]
Income taxes 34% Milanez et al. [17]
Maintenance (%Capex) 3% Milanez et al. [17]
Month/year of reference for economic parameters July/2014a
Exchange rate (R$/US$) 2.30 Average of July, 2014
Enzyme cost—short term (US$/L 2G ethanol) 0.13 Estimate from suppliers
Enzyme cost—medium term (US$/L 2G ethanol) 0.08 Estimate from suppliers
Enzyme cost—long term (US$/L 2G ethanol) 0.06 Estimate from suppliers
Anhydrous ethanol price (R$/L) 1.34 Moving average (2004–2014) [26]
Electricity price (R$/MWh) 132.43 Average from auctions (2005–2013) [27]
  1. aJuly/2014 was chosen based on the date when application of questionnaires and interviews with stakeholders took place