Skip to main content

Table 1 LCA data for chemicals, nutrients and enzymes

From: Integrating enzyme fermentation in lignocellulosic ethanol production: life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis

Input kg CO2-eq. kg−1 MJ primary energy kg−1 (for production) Source
Sulphur dioxide SO2 0.42 7.8 [7, 60]
Ammonia NH3 3.23 11.1 [61]
Phosphoric acid H3PO4 1.36 5.52 [61]
Antifoam 1.33 24.4 Average based on [62] and [63]
Diammonium phosphate (NH4)2HPO4 0.87 8.19 [61]
Magnesium sulphate MgSO4 0.308 1.1 [64]
Molasses 0.142 0.57 [7, 65]
Soybean oil meal 0.8 5.95 [65]
Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 2.6 10.4 [61] (primary energy based on general data for N-fertilizer)
Monopotassium phosphate KH2PO4 0.287 26 [66]
Iron(II) sulphate heptahydrate FeSO4*7H2O 0.093 1.13 Data for FeSO4 [60]
Enzymes 5.5 69a Personal communication with Kløverpris, J. H., Novozymes A/S, February 2015. Estimation based on [7]
  g CO2-eq. MJ−1 Primary energy factor  
Swedish electricity mix 10.1 2.1 [67]
Natural gas-based electricity 124 1.9 [67, 68]
Hard coal 106 1.15 [67]
  1. aCarbon footprint was re-evaluated by Novozymes A/S from 8 to 5.5 kg CO2-eq. kg−1 enzyme cocktail, a reduction by 31%. Fossil energy use was previously 100 MJ kg−1 cocktail, from which the estimate here is reduced by 31%