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Table 2 Sensitivity analysis of ethanol GHG emissions (expressed as GWP)

From: Integrating enzyme fermentation in lignocellulosic ethanol production: life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis

g CO2-eq. MJ−1 ethanol (LHV) ISO RED
Off-site A A+ B B+ Off-site A A+ B B+
Base casea 50 24 23 23 22 31 16 16 15 15
SOC 2–3 rotations 78 53 52 51 50 47 33 32 31 31
SOC 1 rotation 111 89 86 85 84 66 53 52 50 50
SOC 20 years 700 710 700 670 670 500 510 500 480 480
Solid fuel substitutes coal −21 −64 −62 −68 −64      
Electricity substitutes natural gas-based electricityb 44 24 22 20 18      
  1. Results with alternative data and assumptions regarding soil organic carbon (SOC) and substituted products
  2. aBase case includes only fossil GHG emissions, excluding changes in SOC levels
  3. bIn this scenario imported electricity in case A is also assumed to be natural gas-based