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Table 1 An overview of biofuel regulation in the EU renewable energy directive and US renewable fuel standard

From: Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production

  EU renewable energy directivea US renewable fuel standard
Co-production allocation method for non-fossil products Energy allocation except for cogeneration of heat and (excess) power Displacement method
GHG reduction threshold (compared to the fossil fuel baseline) 35% for all biofuels
50% from 1 January 2017 for all existing installations
60% from 1 Jan 2018 for installations commencing production after 5 October 2015
Biofuel category: Applicable to:
Cellulosic biofuel: 60% Lignocellulosic feedstocks
Advanced biofuel: 50% All feedstock except corn starch
Biomass-based diesel: 50% Oil feedstocks
Renewable fuels (conventional biofuels): 20% Typically refers to corn ethanol
Fossil fuel baseline 83.8 g CO2eq/MJ Diesel type fuels: 91.8 CO2eq/MJ
Gasoline type fuels: 93.3 g CO2eq/MJ
  1. aIn 2015 the EU introduced a 7% cap on biofuels from food crops grown on agricultural land and an indicative 0.5% target for advanced biofuels to reduce the risk of indirect LUC effects