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Table 1 Theoretical composition of the substrate (ethanol and acetic acid) during the operating period for the bioreactor with pertraction (BP) and without pertraction (BNP)

From: Upgrading syngas fermentation effluent using Clostridium kluyveri in a continuous fermentation

Day (Phase) OLR BP (g COD L−1 day−1; mM-C day−1) OLR BNP (g COD L−1 day−1; mM-C day−1) HRT (d) Ethanol/acetic acid ratio
1–18 (I) 12 (257) 12 (257) 2 10
18–28 (II) 6 (129) 6 (129) 4 10
28–37 (III) 6 (129) 10 (215) 2 10
37–48 (IV) 10 (215) 10 (215) 2 10
48–74 (V) 15 (322) 15 (322) 2 10
74–85 (VI) 15 (340) 15 (340) 2.3 3
86–95 (VII)a 15 (340) 15 (340) 2.3 3
  1. Ethanol and acetic acid have a COD content of 96 and 64 g COD mol−1, respectively
  2. HRT hydraulic residence time, COD chemical oxygen demand, OLR organic loading rate
  3. aReal syngas fermentation effluent was used