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Fig. 5 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 5

From: Impact of lignin polymer backbone esters on ionic liquid pretreatment of poplar

Fig. 5

2D HSQC NMR spectra of WT and FMT-transgenic lignins. Wild-type (a) un-pretreated native material, and pretreated with (b) [Ch][Lys], (c) [C2C1Im][OAc], and (d) [TBA][OH]. Transgenic Line 5: (e) raw, and pretreated with (f) [Ch][Lys], (g) [C2C1Im][OAc], and (h) [TBA][OH]. A, β-ether (β-O-4′) unit; B, phenylcoumaran (β-5′) unit; C, resinol (β-β´) unit; I, hydroxycinnamyl alcohol endgroup; J, hydroxycinnamaldehyde endgroup; PB, p-hydroxybenzoate unit; G, guaiacyl unit; G′, benzyl-oxidized G unit; S, syringyl unit; S′, benzyl-oxidized S unit; X, xylan unit; X′, acetylated xylan unit; X(R), xylan including reducing end-unit; U, uronic acid unit; Ar, arabinan unit; Ga, galactan unit

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