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Table 2 Comparison of transcription factors involved in plant biomass utilization

From: Regulators of plant biomass degradation in ascomycetous fungi

TF Class Binding site Function Sections Fungi References
Main Secondary
XlnR/XLR1/XYR1 Zn2Cys6 GGCTRRR or GGC(A/T)3 (Hemi)-cellulose utilization Unknown The (hemi-)cellulolytic regulator XlnR/XYR1/XLR1 Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma spp., Fusarium spp., N. crassa, M. oryzae, P. canescens, T. cellulolyticus [8, 84*]
AraR Zn2Cys6 Unknown l-Arabinose utilization Unknown l-Arabinose-responsive regulators (AraR and ARA1) Aspergillus spp. [55, 112*]
ARA1 Zn2Cys6 Unknown l-Arabinose utilization Unknown l-Arabinose-responsive regulators (AraR and ARA1) Magnaporthe oryzae [102*]
CLR-1/ClrA Zn2Cys6 CGGN5CGGNCCG Cellulose utilization Unknown Neurospora crassa cellulose regulators CLR-1 and CLR-2 and their homologs N. crassa, Aspergillus spp. [98*, 114, 119]
CLR-2/ClrB/ManR Zn2Cys6 CGGN11CGG or YAGAAT Cellulose utilization Unknown Neurospora crassa cellulose regulators CLR-1 and CLR-2 and their homologs N. crassa, Aspergillus spp., T. cellulolyticus, P. oxalicum [98*, 114, 119]
ACE2 Zn2Cys6 GGCTAATAA or GGC(T/A)4 or XAE Cellulose utilization Unknown Specific activators of cellulase gene expression in T. reesei: ACE2 and ACE3 Trichoderma reesei [126]*
ACE3 Zn2Cys6 Unknown Cellulose utilization Unknown Specific activators of cellulase gene expression in T. reesei: ACE2 and ACE3 Trichoderma reesei [121]*
AmyR Zn2Cys6 CGGN8(C/A)GG or CGGAAATTTAA Starch utilization Unknown Amylolytic regulation: AmyR and MalR Aspergillus spp. [129,130,131]
MalR Zn2Cys6 Unknown Maltose utilization Unknown Amylolytic regulation: AmyR and MalR Aspergillus spp. [128, 137*]
BglR/COL-26 Zn2Cys6 Unknown Sugar sensing BGL repressor Glucose-sensing regulator: BglR and COL-26 Trichoderma reesei, Neurospora crassa [99, 118, 139*]
ClbR Zn2Cys6 CGG OR CCG Cellobiose utilization Unknown ClbR: cellobiose response regulator Aspergillius aculeatus [17, 140*]
RhaR Zn2Cys6 Unknown l-Rhamnose utilization Unknown Pectinolytic regulation: RhaR, GaaR, AraR and GaaX Aspergillus spp. [42, 144*]
GaaR Zn2Cys6 TCCNCCAAT Galacturonic acid utilization Unknown Pectinolytic regulation: RhaR, GaaR, AraR and GaaX Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger [146, 147*]
InuR Zn2Cys6 CGGN8CGG Inulin utilization Unknown Inulinolytic regulation: InuR Aspergillus niger [37, 148*]
GalX Zn2Cys6 Unknown d-Galactose utilization Unknown d-Galactose-responsive regulators: GalR and GalX Aspergillus spp. [152*]
GalR Zn2Cys6 Unknown d-Galactose utilization Unknown d-Galactose-responsive regulators: GalR and GalX Aspergillus nidulans [113, 149*]
GaaX Unknown Unknown Galacturonic acid repressor Unknown Pectinolytic regulation: RhaR, GaaR, AraR and GaaX Aspergillus niger [146]
CreA/CRE1 Cys2His2 SYGGRG Carbon catabolite repression Unknown Carbon catabolite repression: CreA/1 Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma spp., N. crassa, etc. [156, 157*]
ACE1 Cys2His2 Unclear Cellulase repression Unknown Activator of cellulase expression 1 in T. reesei and hemicellulase regulator 1 in N. crassa Trichoderma reesei [125, 198]
HCR-1 Cys2His2 Unknown Hemicellulase repressor Unknown Activator of cellulase expression 1 in T. reesei and hemicellulase regulator 1 in N. crassa Neurospora crassa [199]
McmA MADS-box CC(A/T)6GG Cellulase regulation Unknown McmA Aspergillus nidulans [124*]
XPP1 E-box–HLH WCTAGW + AGAA 1°–2° metabolism switch Xylanases repressor Xylanase promoter-binding protein (XPP1) Trichoderma reesei [206, 207]
VIB1 p53-like Unknown C-derepression CLR-2 induction, cellulases induction The (hemi-)cellulolytic regulator XlnR/XYR1/XLR1 Neurospora crassa [99]
HAP complex CBF CCAAT Chromatin remodeling, respiratory metabolism CAZy regulation Chromatin access Aspergillus spp., N. crassa, Trichoderma spp., etc. [213,214,215,216]
WC-1/BLR1 GATA WGATAR Blue light/UV-A response, circadian rhythms 1° metabolism response, (hemi)-cellulose utilization Light effect Neurospora crassa, Trichoderma spp. [221, 235, 241]
WC-2/BLR2 GATA WGATAR Blue light/UV-A response, circadian rhythms 1° metabolism response, (hemi)-cellulose utilization Light effect Neurospora crassa, Trichoderma spp. [221, 234, 235]
VeA/VEL1 Velvet Unknown Light response 2° metabolism response, (a)sexual development Light effect Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma spp., N. crassa, Fusarium spp., etc. [204, 205, 224]
VelB Velvet Unknown Light response 2° metabolism Light effect Aspergillus spp. [212, 224]
AreA/NIR2 Cys2Cys2 HGATAR N-assimilation/sensing Chromatin remodeling TFs involved in nitrogen and pH regulation Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus spp. [261, 262, 267]
AreB GATA Unknown Nitrogen metabolite repression Morphology and asexual development TFs involved in nitrogen and pH regulation Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus spp. [258, 267, 268]
NmrA/1 Rossmann fold Unknown Nitrogen metabolite repression Unknown TFs involved in nitrogen and pH regulation Aspergillus spp., Neurospora crassa [260, 266, 267]
NirA/NIT-4 Zn2Cys6 Unknown Nitrate pathway Unknown TFs involved in nitrogen and pH regulation Aspergillus spp., Neurospora crassa [263, 264]
PacC/1 Cys2His2 GCCARG Alkaline pH response Unknown TFs involved in nitrogen and pH regulation Aspergillus spp., T. reesei, N. crassa [271, 276, 283]
PacX Zn2Cys6 Unknown PacC repressor Unknown TFs involved in nitrogen and pH regulation Aspergillus nidulans [282]
  1. References reported here are the most relevant (for more see, specific sections). References with* are the first characterization in fungi and selected as protein reference for orthologous clustering searching