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Table 1 Microbial chain elongation operation and maximum rate of medium chain fatty acid production

From: Electricity-assisted production of caproic acid from grass

Feed source Operation Culture pH Maximum rate of production (g L−1 h−1) Reference
Synthetic medium containing acetate, ethanol, and yeast extract, with CO2 gas flow Packed bioreactor Mixed (non-sterilized, mainly Clostridium kluyveri) 6.5–7.2 2.39
(medium chain fatty acids)
[26]
Grass fermentation effluent containing lactic acid Semi-continuous Mixed (non-sterilized, mainly Clostridium cluster IV) 5.5–6.2 0.99 (caproic acid) This study
Synthetic medium containing galactitol, yeast extract, with in situ extraction Batch Pure (Clostridium sp. BS-1) 6.5 0.34 (caproic acid) [12]
Dilute ethanol and acetate, with in-line extraction Continuous Mixed (non-sterilized, mainly Clostridium spp.) 5.2–5.5 0.33 (caprylic acid) [27]
Synthetic medium containing acetate and ethanol Semi-continuous Mixed (non-sterilized, mainly Clostridium kluyveri) 7 0.20 (caproic acid) [28]
Castor oil Continuous Mixed (non-sterilized, mainly Clostridium kluyveri) 6.5–7 0.19 (caproic acid) [29]
Yeast fermentation beer Continuous Mixed (non-sterilized, mainly Clostridium kluyveri) 5.5 0.14 (caproic acid) [30]
Diluted yellow water Semi-continuous Mixed (non-sterilized, mainly Clostridium cluster IV) 5.5–6.5 0.12 (caproic acid) [3]