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Table 1 Comparison of different glycosyl residue analysis methods for μg monosaccharide quantified per mg of AIR from four different leaf samples

From: Comparison of four glycosyl residue composition methods for effectiveness in detecting sugars from cell walls of dicot and grass tissues

Leaf-method μg glycosyl residue/mg leaf AIR
Ara Rha Fuc Xyl GlcA GalA Man Gal Glc Total neutral Total acidic Total
Arabidopsis
 Alditol acetate 21.8 ± 0.8 13.3 ± 0.7 3.5 ± 0.3 23.9 ± 1.3 5.2 ± 0.3 38.6 ± 2.3 14.0 ± 0.6 120.3   120.3
 Uronic acid* 108.6 ± 3.2   108.6  
 Alditol acetate + uronic acid** 21.8 ± 0.8a 13.3 ± 0.7a 3.5 ± 0.3b 23.9 ± 1.3a 108.6 ± 3.2 5.2 ± 0.3b 38.6 ± 2.3a 14.0 ± 0.6a 120.3a 108.6c 228.9a
 Carbodiimide 27.4 ± 1.8b 23.5 ± 1.5c 2.7 ± 0.02a 32.7 ± 1.4b 1.7 ± 0.01 64.8 ± 4.1b 4.8 ± 0.3a 46.6 ± 2.1c 26.1 ± 1.3b 163.8b 66.5a 230.2b
 TMS 29.2 ± 2.2c 22.1 ± 1.9b 3.5 ± 0.03b 32.2 ± 1.1b 1.9 ± 0.02 72.5 ± 3.3b 5.2 ± 0.5a 42.3 ± 2.6b 24.3 ± 2.2b 158.8b 74.4b 233.1b
 HPAEC 27.4 ± 1.4b 20.0 ± 1.0b 3.3 ± 0.02b 35.5 ± 1.5c 1.8 ± 0.01 62.4 ± 3.9a 8.9 ± 0.7c 41.0 ± 2.8b 23.4 ± 1.6b 159.5b 64.2a 223.6a
Populus
 Alditol acetate 55.2 ± 3.8 13.6 ± 0.7 5.3 ± 0.2 41.5 ± 2.6 3.9 ± 0.4 35.7 ± 2.5 20.5 ± 0.8 175.7   175.7
 Uronic acid* 91.4 ± 4.1   91.4  
 Alditol acetate + uronic acid** 55.2 ± 3.8a 13.6 ± 0.7 5.36 ± 0.2 41.5 ± 2.6a 91.4 ± 4.1 3.9 ± 0.4a 35.7 ± 2.5b 20.5 ± 0.8 175.7a 91.4c 267.1a
 Carbodiimide 98.1 ± 5.1b 11.2 ± 0.7 5.1 ± 0.2 51.5 ± 2.9b 0.9 ± 0.01 29.5 ± 3.1b 3.6 ± 0.3a 44.6 ± 2.9c 21.2 ± 1.3 235.3b 30.4a 265.7a
 TMS 99.2 ± 4.9b 12.4 ± 0.9 5.9 ± 0.4 54.1 ± 3.2b 1.0 ± 0.01 32.8 ± 2.9b 5.1 ± 0.4b 42.3 ± 2.1c 20.2 ± 1.8 239.2b 33.8b 272.8b
 HPAEC 95.7 ± 6.3b 10.6 ± 0.8 4.2 ± 0.3 60.3 ± 4.1c 0.7 ± 0.01 25.6 ± 2.6a 8.6 ± 0.6c 34.3 ± 1.8a 19.7 ± 1.4 233.4b 26.3a 259.7a
Rice
 Alditol acetate 64.1 ± 3.9 2.8 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.02 220.3 ± 8.9  -  - 1.3 ± 0.01 16.5 ± 1.1 31.1 ± 2.4 336.8   336.8
 Uronic acid*  -  -  -  - 12.1 ± 0.9  -  -  -   12.1  
 Alditol acetate + uronic acid** 64.1 ± 3.9a 2.8 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.02 220.3 ± 8.9b 12.1 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.01a 16.5 ± 1.1b 31.1 ± 2.4b 336.8a 12.1c 348.9c
 Carbodiimide 70.3 ± 3.6b 3.1 ± 0.3 0.5 ± 0.01 212.3 ± 9.3a 1.1 ± 0.20 4.3 ± 0.4b 1.2 ± 0.02a 11.6 ± 0.8a 34.3 ± 2.8b 333.3a 5.4a 338.5a
 TMS 73.4 ± 4.2b 2.8 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.01 214.5 ± 11.3a 1.2 ± 0.02 4.9 ± 0.4b 2.0 ± 0.01a 11.4 ± 0.9a 33.5 ± 1.9b 338.0a 6.1b 343.9b
 HPAEC 75.3 ± 5.8c 2.9 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.02 228.9 ± 14.3c 0.6 ± 0.01 3.6 ± 0.3a 3.1 ± 0.04b 10.8 ± 0.6a 25.6 ± 2.1a 347.2b 4.4a 351.6c
Switchgrass
 Alditol acetate 71.3 ± 2.4 2.5 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.02 281.0 ± 13.3  -  - 1.4 ± 0.02 15.8 ± 1.6 50.2 ± 4.1 423.2   423.2
 Uronic acid*  -  -  -  - 4.5 ± 0.4  - -    -   4.5  
 Alditol acetate + uronic acid** 71.3 ± 2.4a 2.5 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.02b 281.0 ± 13.3a 4.5 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.02a 15.8 ± 1.6c 50.2 ± 4.1c 423.2a 4.5 427.7a
 Carbodiimide 75.8 ± 3.3a 2.5 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.01a 290.8 ± 12.7b 0.8 ± 0.01 3.6 ± 0.2a 2.0 ± 0.02b 12.6 ± 0.7b 43.7 ± 3.9b 428.0a 4.4 432.3a
 TMS 80.3 ± 5.1b 2.7 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.01b 295.3 ±  ± 13.8b 0.9 ± 0.01 4.1 ± 0.4b 1.0 ± 0.01a 11.9 ± 1.0b 45.3 ± 3.5b 437.3b 5.0 442.3b
 HPAEC 84.0 ±  ± 3.7b 2.0 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.01a 299.3 ± 15.8b 0.9 ± 0.01 3.0 ± 0.3a 2.3 ± 0.02b 9.0 ± 0.9a 36.0 ± 2.8a 433.2b 3.9 437.1b
  1. Data are means of three biological replicates ± standard deviation, with two technical replicates for alditol acetate, carbodiimide, and TMS methods (n = 6), three technical replicates for uronic acid assay (n = 9), and a single technical replicate for HPAEC method (n = 3). Different letters in superscript following the values indicate significant differences between the amounts (“a” represents the lowest amount) of a particular (or total) sugar residue in the cell walls of a species across different methods (and not between different types of sugars within that leaf sample analyzed using a particular method). Statistics are one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests with significant P value <0.05
  2. * Uronic acid assay data shown here are from analysis using TFA hydrolysis
  3. ** Alditol acetate + uronic acid data shown here are the combined data of the respective individual assays