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Table 5 Measurement scales, reliability, and validity of public perception towards biodiesel

From: Determinants of stakeholders’ attitudes towards biodiesel

Factor and item Corrected item-total correlated α Standardised factor loading Composite reliability Average variance extracted (AVE)
Engagement   0.688   0.715 0.459
 1. Past and intended behaviour 0.469   0.571   
 2. Awareness 0.567   0.712   
 3. Knowledge 0.523   0.737   
Trust in key players   0.838   0.841 0.638
 4. Scientists have done a good job for society 0.657   0.749   
 5. Producers have done a good job for society 0.737   0.847   
 6. Policy makers have done a good job for society 0.709   0.798   
Attitude towards technology   0.875   0.864 0.614
 7. Lead to humanity’s extermination 0.704   0.692   
 8. Impact on urban life 0.786   0.788   
 9. Detrimental to humanity 0.753   0.862   
 10. Upset the balance of nature 0.689   0.784   
Perceived benefit   0.713   0.816 0.465
 11. Useful to the society 0.491   0.708   
 12. Solve problems that currently cannot be solved by traditional method 0.481   0.570   
 13. Benefits exceed risks 0.631   0.754   
Perceived risk   0.677   0.733 0.509
 14. Pose harm to the ecosystem and environment 0.485   0.438   
 15. May cause food shortage 0.651   0.906   
 16. May lead to higher food price 0.569   0.769   
Attitude to biodiesel   0.896   0.897 0.636
 18. More intensive research should be encouraged 0.693   0.743   
 19. Should be scaled up/commercialised 0.755   0.807   
 20. Should be given monetary support by government 0.773   0.823   
 21. Government responsibility to assure the product is beneficial 0.768   0.810   
 22. Overall encouragement 0.737   0.803