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Table 2 Biomass and lipid production of Y. lipolytica on synthetic VFA under different culture conditions

From: Oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica culture with synthetic and food waste-derived volatile fatty acids for lipid production

Carbon source Biomass (g/L) Lipid conc. (g/L) Lipid content (wt %) Y X/S (g/g) Y L/S (g/g) Lag phase (day)
(A) 28 °C, initial pH 6.0, 180 rpm
 Glucose (g/L)
  2.5 2.363 ± 0.055 0.880 ± 0.015 37.27 ± 0.63 0.945 ± 0.022 0.352 ± 0.006 < 3 h
 Acetic acid (g/L)
  2.5 2.327 ± 0.074 0.724 ± 0.016 31.12 ± 1.05 0.931 ± 0.030 0.290 ± 0.006 < 3 h
  5 3.257 ± 0.124 1.036 ± 0.025 31.62 ± 0.91 0.651 ± 0.024 0.207 ± 0.005 < 3 h
  10 4.587 ± 0.162 1.174 ± 0.029 25.80 ± 1.22 0.459 ± 0.016 0.117 ± 0.003 1 ± 0
  20 7.443 ± 0.303 0.992 ± 0.045 13.13 ± 1.42 0.372 ± 0.015 0.050 ± 0.002 5 ± 2
 Propionic acid (g/L)
  2.5 2.147 ± 0.089 0.610 ± 0.018 28.36 ± 0.74 0.859 ± 0.036 0.244 ± 0.007 < 3 h
  5 2.500 ± 0.102 0.675 ± 0.010 27.38 ± 0.46 0.500 ± 0.020 0.135 ± 0.002 1 ± 0
  10 3.137 ± 0.220 0.676 ± 0.037 22.08 ± 1.21 0.314 ± 0.022 0.068 ± 0.004 9 ± 1
  20 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
 Butyric acid (g/L)
  2.5 1.917 ± 0.065 0.548 ± 0.015 28.91 ± 0.66 0.767 ± 0.026 0.219 ± 0.006 < 3 h
  5 2.800 ± 0.132 0.554 ± 0.020 19.53 ± 1.08 0.560 ± 0.026 0.111 ± 0.004 2 ± 0
  10 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
  20 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
(B) 38 °C, initial pH 6.0, 180 rpm
 Glucose (g/L)
  2.5 2.290 ± 0.082 0.758 ± 0.032 33.12 ± 0.85 0.916 ± 0.033 0.303 ± 0.012 < 3 h
 Acetic acid (g/L)
  2.5 2.307 ± 0.080 0.702 ± 0.020 30.78 ± 0.85 0.923 ± 0.032 0.281 ± 0.008 1 ± 0
  5 2.405 ± 0.124 0.722 ± 0.023 30.12 ± 1.20 0.481 ± 0.025 0.144 ± 0.005 2 ± 0
  10 2.780 ± 0.105 0.803 ± 0.035 29.12 ± 0.79 0.278 ± 0.011 0.080 ± 0.004 2 ± 0
  20 3.077 ± 0.150 0.566 ± 0.033 18.89 ± 1.51 0.154 ± 0.008 0.028 ± 0.002 9 ± 1
 Propionic acid (g/L)
  2.5 1.290 ± 0.056 0.363 ± 0.015 28.03 ± 0.74 0.516 ± 0.022 0.145 ± 0.006 2 ± 0
  5 1.400 ± 0.082 0.314 ± 0.021 22.61 ± 1.07 0.280 ± 0.016 0.063 ± 0.004 6 ± 1
  10 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
  20 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
 Butyric acid (g/L)
  2.5 1.333 ± 0.070 0.347 ± 0.022 26.07 ± 1.58 0.532 ± 0.028 0.139 ± 0.009 2 ± 0
  5 1.430 ± 0.109 0.232 ± 0.038 16.82 ± 1.53 0.286 ± 0.022 0.046 ± 0.008 24 ± 3
  10 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
  20 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
(C) 28 °C, pH uncontrolled, 180 rpm
 Glucose (g/L)
  2.5 2.333 ± 0.060 0.802 ± 0.020 34.46 ± 0.82 0.933 ± 0.024 0.320 ± 0.008 < 3 h
 Acetic acid (g/L)
  2.5 1.811 ± 0.070 0.469 ± 0.014 26.12 ± 1.16 0.724 ± 0.028 0.188 ± 0.006 1 ± 0
  5 2.862 ± 0.125 0.675 ± 0.021 23.55 ± 1.07 0.572 ± 0.025 0.135 ± 0.004 13 ± 2
  10 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
  20 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
 Propionic acid (g/L)
  2.5 1.784 ± 0.093 0.351 ± 0.029 19.56 ± 1.42 0.714 ± 0.037 0.140 ± 0.012 6 ± 1
  5 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
  10 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
  20 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
 Butyric acid (g/L)
  2.5 1.823 ± 0.160 0.266 ± 0.040 15.22 ± 1.96 0.729 ± 0.064 0.106 ± 0.016 17 ± 2
  5 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
  10 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
  20 N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
  1. All the results presented are the mean values ± SD for three independent replicates
  2. Biomass was harvested at the end of the stationary phase, which was identified by analyzing the OD600 value of culture broth, within an observation period of 30 days. Ammonia chloride with an initial concentration of 260 mg-N/L was used as a nitrogen source for Y. lipolytica. Except for the cell growth N.D. cultures, all cultures completely consumed carbon sources and nitrogen sources during the harvesting of biomass
  3. N.D. not detected; Y X/S growth yield coefficient, g DCW/g VFAs; Y L/S lipid yield coefficient, g lipid/g VFAs; Lag phase the period from the inoculation to the start of exponential phase