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Table 1 Examples of hybrid photosynthesis system with microbes as biocatalyst

From: Hybrid photosynthesis-powering biocatalysts with solar energy captured by inorganic devices

System Light harvester Microbe Comments References
PV + MES Multi-Si PVa S. ovata Graphite electrodes
Water splitting
Produces acetate and 2-oxobutyrate
Efficiencyb: 8.5–9.9%
PV + MES Multi-Si PV R. eutropha Co-Pi anode/Co-P cathode
Water splitting
PHB efficiency: 7.6–8.9%
C3–C5 alcohols efficiency: 7.1–8.3%
PBEC Si nanowire photocathode
TiO2 photoanode
S. ovata Water splitting
1.2 g L−1 day−1 acetate
Efficiency: 0.38%
PHB, n-butanol and isoprenoids were produced from acetate in a 2nd reactor
PBEC n +/p-Si photocathode M. barkeri Pt gauze anode
Water splitting
5.86 mL day−1 CH4
PBEC p-InP photocathode
n-TiO2 nanowire/FTO photoanode
M. barkeri Water splitting
0.58 mL day−1 CH4
PC CdS nanoparticles M. thermoacetica Cysteine as e donor
0.48 mM day−1 acetate
PC CdS nanoparticles
TiO2 nanoparticles
M. thermoacetica Z-scheme
Water splitting
Cysteine as e shuttle
Cocatalyst MnPc
1.2 mM day−1 acetate
  1. PV photovoltaic, MES microbial electrosynthesis, PBEC photobioelectrochemical cell, PC photocatalyst-driven system
  2. aCoupling of the PV with the MES system has not been tested experimentally. Solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency of multi-Si PV was assumed to be 18–21%
  3. bEfficiency refers to solar energy-to-product conversion efficiency