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Table 4 Acid constants for Eq. 10

From: An accurate description of Aspergillus niger organic acid batch fermentation through dynamic metabolic modelling

Acid species K 1 K 2 K 3
Citric acid 10−3.128 10−4.761 10−6.396
Gluconic acid 10−3.7 0 0
Acetic acid 10−4.757 0 0
Malic acid 10−3.459 10−5.097 0
Succinic acid 10−4.207 10−5.636 0
Lactic acid 10−3.86 0 0
Oxalic acid 10−1.252 10−4.266 0