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Table 1 Adenylate energy charge (AEC) improvements observed through protocol development

From: Targeted redox and energy cofactor metabolomics in Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum

Date AEC NADH (µM) ATP (µM) Protocol improvements from previous
1 0.411 ± 0.017 0 0.246 ± 0.031 Ethanol-based solvent, aggressive sonication protocol, extraction temperatures reached ~ 50 °C
2 0.804 ± 0.009 0.123 ± 0.006 2.31 ± 0.13 Fast-filtering extraction and aqueous/organic extraction solvent, adapted from [32] with modifications
3 0.91 ± 0.01 1.17 ± 0.06 3.61 ± 0.02 Further improved handling, removed formic acid from extraction solvent