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Table 2 Fermentation results to evaluate the ethanol production potential of strains harboring candidate stress-related TFs (sampling time: 24 h; initial concentration of glucose: 104.8 g/l)

From: The transcription factors Hsf1 and Msn2 of thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus promote cell growth and ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at high temperatures

  Control KmHsf1 KmMsn2 KmSfp1 KmRpn4
  Percent improvement (%)   Percent improvement (%)   Percent improvement (%)   Percent improvement (%)
Final ethanol concentration (g/l)
 30 °C 41.8 ± 1.3 41.8 ± 1.4 0.2 42.0 ± 0.7 0.5 42.5 ± 0.7 1.8 42.1 ± 1.4 0.7
 40 °C 35.6 ± 1.1 39.1 ± 1.3 9.6 39.2 ± 1.2 10.1 36.9 ± 1.3 3.7 36.4 ± 0.5 2.4
 42 °C 25.3 ± 1.3 30.5 ± 1.2 20.4 31.0 ± 0.6 22.6 25.9 ± 1.5 2.4 25.5 ± 1.3 1.3
 43 °C 18.9 ± 0.3 27.2 ± 1.4 43.6 27.6 ± 1.2 45.7 19.7 ± 1.0 4.1 16.2 ± 0.8 − 14.6
Consumed glucose (g/l)
 30 °C 103.6 ± 0.9 103.7 ± 1.0 0.1 104.7 ± 0.1 1.1 104.7 ± 0.1 1.1 103.7 ± 0.4 0.2
 40 °C 88.5 ± 0.7 96.7 ± 0.8 9.3 97.1 ± 0.5 9.7 90.5 ± 0.4 2.2 90.3 ± 0.7 2.0
 42 °C 60.9 ± 1.6 73.3 ± 2.0 20.2 74.1 ± 1.8 21.6 63.4 ± 1.2 3.8 61.9 ± 1.6 1.6
 43 °C 52.2 ± 1.4 71.1 ± 0.8 36.3 72.3 ± 0.8 38.6 52.3 ± 0.7 0.2 48.0 ± 0.9 − 8.0
Metabolic yield (g ethanol/g glucose)
 30 °C 0.40 0.40 0.03 0.40 − 0.6 0.41 0.7 0.41 0.5
 40 °C 0.40 0.40 0.3 0.40 0.4 0.40 0.5 0.41 2.2
 42 °C 0.42 0.42 0.2 0.42 0.8 0.41 − 1.3 0.41 − 0.9
 43 °C 0.36 0.38 5.3 0.38 5.1 0.38 3.9 0.34 − 7.2
Percentage of the theoretical yield: 0.51 g ethanol/g glucose (%)
 30 °C 79.1% 79.1% 0.03 78.6% − 0.6 79.6% 0.7 79.5% 0.5
 40 °C 78.8% 79.0% 0.3 79.1% 0.4 79.9% 1.4 79.1% 0.4
 42 °C 81.4% 81.5% 0.2 82.1% 0.8 80.3% − 1.3 80.7% − 0.9
 43 °C 71.1% 74.9% 5.3 74.7% 5.1 73.9% 3.9 66.0% − 7.2