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Table 6 Comparison of biodiesel properties derived from YMW larvae fed on corn stover and BSF larvae fed with YMW frass with European biodiesel standard (EN14214), and biodiesels derived from waste cooking oils and feed crops

From: Insect biorefinery: a green approach for conversion of crop residues into biodiesel and protein

Properties YMW biodiesel BSF biodiesel EN14214 Mixed waste cooking oil biodiesel [51, 52] Waste sunflower oil [52] Neem oil biodiesel [53] Cotton seed oil biodiesel [54] Soybean biodiesel [55] Corn biodiesel [55]
Density (kg/m3) 876 872.8 860–900 860 888 871 864 885 880
Viscosity at 40 °C (mm2/s) 4.51 3.284 3.5–5.0 4 4.42 4.63 4.14 4.08 3.4
Sulfur content (wt%) ND ND 0.02 (max.) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Ester content (%) 97.2 96.9 97 98.2 99.5 NA NA NA NA
Water content (mg/kg) 260 180 500 (max.) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Flash point (°C) 156 122 120 (min.) 155 NA NA NA NA NA
Solidifying point (C) − 2 − 8 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Cetane index 52 50 51 (min.) 56 51.4 53.5 52 52 58
Acid number (mg KOH/g) 0.27 0.2 0.5 (max.) NA NA NA NA 0.15 NA
Distillation temperature (°C) 362 355 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
  1. NA not available, ND not determined