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Fig. 12 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 12

From: Enhanced rates of enzymatic saccharification and catalytic synthesis of biofuel substrates in gelatinized cellulose generated by trifluoroacetic acid

Fig. 12

Yields of HMF and levulinic acid from crystalline, swollen, and gelatinized cellulose. Crystalline cellulose was suspended in TFA at − 20 °C for 15 h (0 h), with subsequent heating at 55 °C for up 5 h. Materials (100 mg) were suspended in 2 mL of 100 mM each of maleic acid and AlCl3; the reaction mixtures were heated to 180 °C and held at that temperature for 15 min. ND never-dried, FD freeze-dried. Levulinic acid yield is in blue, and HMF yield is in green. Error bars represent standard deviation for triplicates

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