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Fig. 3 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 3

From: Enhanced rates of enzymatic saccharification and catalytic synthesis of biofuel substrates in gelatinized cellulose generated by trifluoroacetic acid

Fig. 3

Changes in surface structure of cotton linter cellulose after low-temperature swelling and subsequent gelatinization at 55 °C. After each treatment, swollen and gelatinized materials were washed extensively in water and freeze-dried. a Untreated cotton fiber linter particles. Bar = 100 μm. b Higher magnification shows undulations in the surface of the fiber fragments. Bar = 10 μm. c Low-temperature swollen particles (− 15 °C for 24 h) show erosion and wrinkling of the surface. Bar = 100 μm. d Higher magnification shows potentially defibrillated macrofibrils. Bar = 10 μm. e Gelatinization of swollen fiber particles at 55 °C for 5 h results in loss of cellular integrity. Bar = 100 μm. f Higher magnification reveals loss of macrofibril structure. Bar = 10 μm

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