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Table 1 Overview of different microbial strains including Pichia pastoris (our work) engineered to produce isobutanol and isobutyl acetate

From: Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris for production of isobutanol and isobutyl acetate

Strain name/host strain Overexpressed genes Carbon source (g/L) Specific growth rate (h−1) Product Average titer (g/L) Yield (mg/g carbon source) Productivity (mg/L h)/maximum productivity (mg/L h) References
Escherichia coli
 JCL260 LlkivD, ScADH2, BsalsS, ilvCD Glucose (36) Not reported Isobutanol 22 350 (between 40 and 112 h) 196.4 Atsumi et al. [8]
 JCL260 ΔpoxB LlkivD, ScADH2, BsalsS, ilvCD Glucose (fed batch fermentation) ~ 0.6 Isobutanol 50.8 ± 1.1a 290a 705.6a Baez et al. [36]
Synechococcus elongatus
 PCC7942 LlkivD, EcYqhD, BsalsS, EcilvCD Rubisco Carbon dioxide Not reported Isobutanol 0.45 Not reported 3.12 Atsumi et al. [10]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
 CEN.PK2-1C Δilv2 ScIlv2_cytosolic, ScIlv3_cytosolic, ScIlv5_cytosolic, ScARO10, ScADH2 Glucose (40) Not reported Isobutanol 0.630 14.18 6.56 Brat et al. [15]
 BY4741 × Y3929 (diploid) ScIlv2, ScIlv3, ScIlv5, ScARO10_mitochondrial, adhA_mitochondrial Glucose (100) Not reported Isobutanol 0.635 ± 0.023 6.7 ± 0.2 20.5 ± 1.2 Avalos et al. [14]
 YPH499 Δlpd1 ScIlv2, ScIlv2_cytosolic, ScIlv3_cytosolic, ScIlv5_cytosolic, LlkivD, ScADH6, ScMAE1 Glucose (100) (Semi-anaerobic) Not reported Isobutanol 1.620 16.00 67.5 Matsuda et al. [11]
Pichia pastoris
 KM71 None Glucose (100) 0.120 ± 0.002 Isobutanol 0.037 ± 0.005 0.37 0.52/1.22 This study
 PP100 LlkivD, ScADH7 Glucose (100) 0.122 ± 0.001 Isobutanol 0.049 ± 0.006 0.49 0.68/1.68 This study
 PP200 LlkivD, ScADH7, PpIlv5, PpIlv3 Glucose (100) 0.123 ± 0.001 Isobutanol 0.048 ± 0.001 0.48 0.66/1.98 This study
 PP300 LlkivD, ScADH7, PpIlv5, PpIlv3, PpIlv6 (codon optimized), PpIlv2 (codon optimized) Glucose (100) 0.107 ± 0.002 Isobutanol 0.885 ± 0.011 8.85 12.29/31.80 This study
 PP300 LlkivD, ScADH7, PpIlv5, PpIlv3, PpIlv6 (codon optimized), PpIlv2 (codon optimized) Glucose (20) 0.107 ± 0.001 Isobutanol 0.200 ± 0.001 2.00 2.78/9.60 This study
 PP310 LlkivD, ScADH7, PpIlv5, PpIlv3, PpIlv6 (codon optimized), PpIlv2 (codon optimized) and further overexpression of PpIlv6 and PpIlv2 by integration of another copy of the gene cassette Glucose (100) 0.092 ± 0.002 Isobutanol 1.699 ± 0.073 16.99 23.60/60.41 This study
 PP302 LlkivD, ScADH7, PpIlv5, PpIlv3, PpIlv6 (codon optimized) and PpIlv2 (codon optimized) and further episomal-plasmid based expression of LlkivD and ScADH7 Glucose (100) 0.096 ± 0.001 Isobutanol 1.716 ± 0.054 17.16 23.83/60.92 This study
 PP303 LlkivD, ScADH7, PpIlv5, PpIlv3, PpIlv6 (codon optimized) and PpIlv2 (codon optimized) and further episomal-plasmid based expression of PpIlv5 and PpIlv3 Glucose (100) 0.108 ± 0.004 Isobutanol 1.745 ± 0.090 17.45 24.23/67.97 This study
 PP304 LlkivD, ScADH7, PpIlv5, PpIlv3, PpIlv6 (codon optimized) and PpIlv2 (codon optimized) and further episomal-plasmid based expression of PpIlv6 and PpIlv2 Glucose (100) 0.109 ± 0.002 Isobutanol 2.221 ± 0.048 22.21 30.84/60.88 This study
 PP400 LlkivD, ScADH7, PpIlv5, PpIlv3, PpIlv6 (codon optimized), PpIlv2 (codon optimized) and ScATF1 Glucose (100) 0.099 ± 0.001 Isobutyl acetate 0.006 ± 0.001 0.06 0.06 This study
 PP401 LlkivD, ScADH7, PpIlv5, PpIlv3, PpIlv6 (codon optimized), PpIlv2 (codon optimized) and episomal-plasmid based expression of ScATF1 Glucose (100) 0.091 ± 0.001 Isobutyl acetate 0.051 ± 0.007 0.51 0.53 This study
  1. The reported average titers do not take into account different fermentation times and conditions and are therefore not directly comparable
  2. aFermentation was performed in a 1-L bioreactor equipped with a gas stripping system for in situ product removal