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Table 1 Composition of the investigated AFWs

From: Deep Eutectic Solvents pretreatment of agro-industrial food waste

Biomass Pretreatment Biomass recovery (%) Biomass composition (%)a
DES Temperature (°C) Biomass to solvent ratio (g g−1) Glucan Xylan Arabinan AILb ASLc
Potato peels Raw biomass 31.3 ± 0.05 6.0 ± 0.02 1.4 ± 0.01 30.0 ± 0.01 2.9 ± 0.02
Choline chloride–glycerol 60 1:8 85 31 ± 0.04 6.0 ± 0.02 1.0 ± 0.01 29.9 ± 0.02 2.9 ± 0.01
1:16 83 35 ± 0.01 5.5 ± 0.01 1.0 ± 0.02 28.5 ± 0.04 2.8 ± 0.02
1:32 83 37 ± 0.03 5.3 ± 0.02 0.4 ± 0.01 27.5 ± 0.02 2.9 ± 0.02
115 1:8 80 41 ± 0.03 4.0 ± 0.02 n.d. 26.3 ± 0.01 2.7 ± 0.04
1:16 75 44 ± 0.05 3.3 ± 0.01 n.d. 24.5 ± 0.03 2.7 ± 0.05
1:32 75 45 ± 0.05 3.0 ± 0.02 n.d. 23.2 ± 0.01 2.5 ± 0.02
150 1:8 53 45 ± 0.04 n.d. n.d. 22.5 ± 0.03 1.9 ± 0.01
1:16 52 51 ± 0.02 n.d. n.d. 20.4 ± 0.02 1.9 ± 0.01
1:32 52 52 ± 0.01 n.d. n.d. 19.7 ± 0.01 1.8 ± 0.01
Choline chloride–ethylene glycol 60 1:8 84 31 ± 0.04 6.0 ± 0.04 1.0 ± 0.02 30.0 ± 0.04 2.9 ± 0.02
1:16 83 35 ± 0.01 5.9 ± 0.01 1.2 ± 0.02 29.5 ± 0.04 2.9 ± 0.01
1:32 82 36 ± 0.04 5.8 ± 0.02 0.4 ± 0.01 29.0 ± 0.02 2.8 ± 0.02
115 1:8 80 40 ± 0.05 4.5 ± 0.02 n.d. 27.0 ± 0.05 2.7 ± 0.04
1:16 76 42 ± 0.04 4.3 ± 0.01 n.d. 25.5 ± 0.03 2.5 ± 0.05
1:32 74 44 ± 0.01 4.0 ± 0.01 n.d. 24.6 ± 0.02 2.5 ± 0.02
150 1:8 55 43 ± 0.03 n.d. n.d. 23.5 ± 0.03 2.0 ± 0.01
1:16 52 49 ± 0.01 n.d. n.d. 21.5 ± 0.01 1.9 ± 0.01
1:32 52 50 ± 0.02 n.d. n.d. 21.1 ± 0.01 1.8 ± 0.01
Coffee silverskin Raw biomass 17.5 ± 0.05 8.0 ± 0.01 1.6 ± 0.003 27.0 ± 0.02 3 ± 0.01
Choline chloride–glycerol 60 1:8 80 18 ± 0.01 7.7 ± 0.02 1.2 ± 0.02 26.5 ± 0.02 2.9 ± 0.01
1:16 80 20 ± 0.01 7.0 ± 0.01 1.0 ± 0.02 25.5 ± 0.01 2.8 ± 0.01
1:32 80 20 ± 0.02 6.5 ± 0.02 0.6 ± 0.02 25.2 ± 0.02 2.6 ± 0.02
115 1:8 75 23 ± 0.03 4.0 ± 0.02 n.d. 24.3 ± 0.02 2.6 ± 0.05
1:16 70 24 ± 0.04 3.3 ± 0.01 n.d. 23.5 ± 0.02 2.2 ± 0.05
1:32 70 25 ± 0.05 2.0 ± 0.02 n.d. 22.1 ± 0.01 2.0 ± 0.02
150 1:8 60 30 ± 0.04 1.0 ± 0.01 n.d. 21.5 ± 0.03 1.9 ± 0.01
1:16 60 32 ± 0.01 1.3 ± 0.02 n.d. 19.4 ± 0.01 1.5 ± 0.02
1:32 50 33 ± 0.01 0.8 ± 0.04 n.d. 17.7 ± 0.01 1.3 ± 0.02
Choline chloride–ethylene glycol 60 1:8 80 17 ± 0.04 8.0 ± 0.04 1.0 ± 0.02 27.2 ± 0.04 2.7 ± 0.01
1:16 79 19 ± 0.01 6.9 ± 0.03 1.2 ± 0.02 26.5 ± 0.04 2.7 ± 0.01
1:32 79 19 ± 0.03 6.0 ± 0.02 0.8 ± 0.01 26.0 ± 0.02 2.5 ± 0.02
115 1:8 74 20 ± 0.05 5.4 ± 0.01 n.d. 25.0 ± 0.05 2.7 ± 0.05
1:16 72 21 ± 0.04 3.3 ± 0.05 n.d. 23.9 ± 0.03 2.5 ± 0.02
1:32 72 25 ± 0.01 3.0 ± 0.05 n.d. 22.8 ± 0.02 2.5 ± 0.02
150 1:8 59 25 ± 0.04 1.9 ± 0.01 n.d. 22.1 ± 0.03 2.0 ± 0.01
1:16 54 27 ± 0.04 1.5 ± 0.01 n.d. 20.0 ± 0.01 1.9 ± 0.04
1:32 50 27 ± 0.03 0.5 ± 0.04 n.d. 19.2 ± 0.01 1.8 ± 0.04
Brewer’s spent grains Raw biomass 16.8 ± 0.03 16.5 ± 0.02 2.0 ± 0.01 20.0 ± 0.03 1.5 ± 0.02
Choline chloride–glycerol 60 1:8 81 17 ± 0.04 16.0 ± 0.02 2.0 ± 0.02 20.0 ± 0.02 1.5 ± 0.01
1:16 80 19 ± 0.01 15.5 ± 0.01 1.0 ± 0.02 19.5 ± 0.01 1.5 ± 0.01
1:32 80 20 ± 0.03 14.3 ± 0.02 0.5 ± 0.01 17.8 ± 0.02 1.3 ± 0.01
115 1:8 75 21 ± 0.03 12.3 ± 0.02 n.d. 16.3 ± 0.01 1.3 ± 0.04
1:16 74 23 ± 0.05 11.0 ± 0.01 n.d. 14.0 ± 0.02 1.1 ± 0.05
1:32 73 24 ± 0.05 9.9 ± 0.02 n.d. 12.2 ± 0.01 1.1 ± 0.02
150 1:8 53 25 ± 0.04 8.8 ± 0.04 n.d. 11.5 ± 0.03 0.9 ± 0.01
1:16 52 27 ± 0.02 8.5 ± 0.01 n.d. 10.4 ± 0.01 0.6 ± 0.01
1:32 52 27 ± 0.01 8.0 ± 0.01 n.d. 10.0 ± 0.01 0.6 ± 0.01
Choline chloride–ethylene glycol 60 1:8 80 17 ± 0.04 16.5 ± 0.02 1.9 ± 0.01 20.0 ± 0.04 1.5 ± 0.02
1:16 80 18 ± 0.01 15.9 ± 0.01 1.2 ± 0.01 19.8 ± 0.04 1.4 ± 0.01
1:32 79 18 ± 0.04 14.5 ± 0.02 0.4 ± 0.01 19.0 ± 0.02 1.5 ± 0.01
115 1:8 76 20 ± 0.05 12.9 ± 0.02 n.d. 17.0 ± 0.05 1.3 ± 0.02
1:16 76 23 ± 0.04 11.8 ± 0.01 n.d. 15.5 ± 0.03 1.1 ± 0.05
1:32 74 23 ± 0.01 10.5 ± 0.01 n.d. 14.6 ± 0.02 1.1 ± 0.02
150 1:8 55 23 ± 0.03 9.5 ± 0.02- n.d. 13.5 ± 0.03 0.9 ± 0.01
1:16 52 24 ± 0.01 8.9 ± 0.01- n.d. 12.5 ± 0.01 0.8 ± 0.02
1:32 52 24 ± 0.02 8.6 ± 0.02- n.d. 10.8 ± 0.01 0.8 ± 0.01
Apple residues Raw biomass 21.2 ± 0.04 12.2 ± 0.01 2.5 ± 0.04 16.5 ± 0.04 2.0 ± 0.01
Choline chloride–glycerol 60 1:8 80 22.0 ± 0.04 12.0 ± 0.02 2.0 ± 0.01 15.9 ± 0.02 2.0 ± 0.01
1:16 81 25.1 ± 0.01 11.5 ± 0.01 2.0 ± 0.02 13.5 ± 0.03 2.0 ± 0.01
1:32 80 25.9 ± 0.03 11.0 ± 0.02 1.9 ± 0.01 12.9 ± 0.02 1.9 ± 0.02
115 1:8 75 30.0 ± 0.03 8.0 ± 0.02 0.9 ± 0.01 10.3 ± 0.01 1.7 ± 0.04
1:16 70 33.2 ± 0.05 7.3 ± 0.01 0.5 ± 0.01 9.5 ± 0.03 1.7 ± 0.01
1:32 70 34.0 ± 0.05 6.5 ± 0.02 n.d. 8.7 ± 0.01 1.2 ± 0.02
150 1:8 55 34.1 ± 0.04 6.5 ± 0.01 n.d. 7.5 ± 0.01 1.0 ± 0.02
1:16 50 35.0 ± 0.02 6.0 ± 0.01 n.d. 6.4 ± 0.02 0.9 ± 0.01
1:32 50 34.9 ± 0.01 5.9 ± 0.02 n.d. 6.1 ± 0.01 0.8 ± 0.01
Choline chloride–ethylene glycol 60 1:8 81 21.0 ± 0.04 11.9 ± 0.02 2.0 ± 0.01 16.0 ± 0.01 2.0 ± 0.01
1:16 82 24.1 ± 0.01 11.0 ± 0.01 1.2 ± 0.02 14.1 ± 0.03 1.9 ± 0.01
1:32 81 24.2 ± 0.03 11.0 ± 0.02 0.8 ± 0.01 13.7 ± 0.02 1.7 ± 0.02
115 1:8 76 27.0 ± 0.03 10.0 ± 0.02 0.5 ± 0.01 11.3 ± 0.01 1.4 ± 0.04
1:16 76 32.2 ± 0.05 8.3 ± 0.01 0.2 ± 0.01 9.5 ± 0.02 1.4 ± 0.01
1:32 72 32.3 ± 0.05 7.5 ± 0.02 n.d. 8.2 ± 0.01 1.0 ± 0.02
150 1:8 50 31.1 ± 0.04 7.0 ± 0.01 n.d. 8.1 ± 0.01 1.0 ± 0.02
1:16 50 33.8 ± 0.02 6.5 ± 0.01 n.d. 7.4 ± 0.01 0.9 ± 0.02
1:32 50 34.2 ± 0.01 6.5 ± 0.02 n.d. 7.1 ± 0.01 0.9 ± 0.02
  1. Data assessed for raw material and after DES pretreatment are reported
  2. n.d. not detected
  3. aPercentages calculated on biomass dry weight basis
  4. bAcid insoluble lignin
  5. cAcid soluble lignin