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Table 2 Results of the screening of metal and oxidized-metal anodes

From: Molybdenum anode: a novel electrode for enhanced power generation in microbial fuel cells, identified via extensive screening of metal electrodes

Base metal Anode Maximum power density (mW/m2) Current productivity (A/m2)a
Reactor 1 Reactor 2 Reactor 3 Average ± SD Reactor 1 Reactor 2 Reactor 3 Average ± SD
Al No treatment 140 269 190 200 ± 65 0.53 0.80 0.58 0.64 ± 0.14
EOacid-Al 141 207   174 0.43 0.46   0.45
HT-Al 0.01 0.02   0 0.00 0.00   0.00
Ti No treatment 28 4   16 0.02 0.05   0.04
EOacid-Ti 2 5   4 0.01 0.02   0.02
FO-Ti 162 90   126 0.59 0.38   0.49
Fe No treatment 178 186   182 0.39 0.70   0.55
EOalk-Fe 134 219   177 0.38 0.81   0.60
FO-Fe 289 261 278 276 ± 14 1.01 0.91 1.05 0.99 ± 0.07
Ni No treatment 165 130   148 0.43 0.41   0.42
EOacid-Ni 142 11   77 0.11 0.01   0.06
EOalk-Ni 120 131   126 0.08 0.27   0.18
FO-Ni 162 110   136 0.42 0.21   0.32
Cu No treatment 5 9   7 0.00 0.00   0.00
EOacid-Cu 26 14   20 0.00 0.00   0.00
FO-Cu 39 23   31 0.09 0.00   0.05
Zn No treatment 192 156   174 0.16 0.28   0.22
EOalk-Zn 120 152   136 0.18 0.18   0.18
HT-Zn 160 88   124 0.36 0.08   0.22
Zr No treatment 73 55   64 0.21 0.18   0.20
EOalk-Zr 16 9   13 0.04 0.02   0.03
FO-Zr 7 3   5 0.03 0.13   0.08
Nb No treatment 1.3 0.8   1 0.01 0.01   0.01
EOacid-Nb 0.4 0.5   0 0.01 0.00   0.01
FO-Nb 68 111   90 0.17 0.27   0.22
Mo No treatment 397 269 366 344 ± 67 2.15 1.08 1.76 1.66 ± 0.54
EOacid-Mo 373 265 331 323 ± 54 1.76 1.13 1.50 1.46 ± 0.32
EOalk-Mo 293 312 315 307 ± 12 0.93 1.09 1.40 1.14 ± 0.24
FO-Mo 209 295 279 261 ± 46 0.67 1.09 0.96 0.91 ± 0.22
Ag No treatment 71 135   103 0.20 0.14   0.17
EOacid-Ag 196 90   143 0.59 0.35   0.47
EOalk-Ag 198 242   220 0.60 0.85   0.73
HT-Ag 238 218   228 0.49 0.59   0.54
In No treatment 204 209   207 0.57 0.53   0.55
EOacid-In 195 208   202 0.47 0.63   0.55
Sn No treatment 279 183 265 242 ± 52 1.15 0.87 1.01 1.01 ± 0.14
EOacid-Sn 198 247 245 230 ± 28 0.55 1.03 0.84 0.81 ± 0.24
EOalk-Sn 287 171 286 248 ± 67 1.19 1.18 1.10 1.16 ± 0.05
HT-Sn 259 238 171 223 ± 46 0.95 0.88 0.72 0.85 ± 0.12
Ta No treatment 5 2   4 0.03 0.01   0.02
EOacid-Ta 0 1   1 0.00 0.01   0.01
W No treatment 73 72   73 0.00 0.00   0.00
EOacid-W 68 73   71 0.00 0.00   0.00
EOalk-W 77 71   74 0.00 0.09   0.05
FO-W 253 293 288 278 ± 22 1.09 0.62 1.03 0.91 ± 0.26
  1. aCurrent generation of the metal anodes at − 0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in a potentiostatic test