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Table 1 The orthogonal design and analysis of acid hydrolysis of corn husk at four different levels of acid concentration, corn husk to sulfuric acid ratio, time, and temperature

From: Production of butyric acid from acid hydrolysate of corn husk in fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum: kinetics and process economic analysis

No. Factor Total reducing sugars (g L−1)
Acid concentration (M) Corn husk to sulfuric acid (w:v) Time (h) Temperature (°C)
1 0.2 1:10 2 90 4.83
2 0.2 1:15 4 100 12.36
3 0.2 1:20 6 110 16.48
4 0.2 1:25 8 120 32.81
5 0.3 1:10 4 110 21.59
6 0.3 1:15 2 120 36.82
7 0.3 1:20 8 90 11.93
8 0.3 1:25 6 100 13.92
9 0.4 1:10 6 120 50.67
10 0.4 1:15 8 110 28.55
11 0.4 1:20 2 100 12.39
13 0.5 1:10 8 100 18.86
15 0.5 1:20 4 120 40.0
16 0.5 1:25 2 110 25.43
Value      
 k1 16.62 23.99 19.87 11.43  
 k2 21.07 23.87 21.29 14.38  
 k3 25.71 20.20 24.70 23.01  
 k4 25.51 20.85 23.04 40.08  
 R 9.09 3.79 4.83 28.65  
  1. k1–k4 values are the mean values of total reducing sugars for each factor at levels 1–4, respectively; R is the range or difference between the maximum and minimum k values for each factor. A larger R value indicates a greater effect of the factor on the process