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Table 1 Effect of overliming and AC detoxification on inhibitors removal

From: Effect of overliming and activated carbon detoxification on inhibitors removal and butanol fermentation of poplar prehydrolysates

GC peak Compound name RTa (min) m/z Inhibitor concentrationb (mg L−1)
Untreated Overliming 5.0% AC Overliming + 2.5% AC Overliming + 5.0% AC
  Furan derivatives    4444.3 1078.6 995.1 897.3 408.7
1* Furfural 4.089 96 3360.9 736.8 721.8 789.3 378.4
2* 2-Acetylfuran 5.706 110 3.3 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8
5* 5-Methylfurfural 6.794 110 156.3 27.5 16.8 25.3 1.9
7* Cyclotene 7.965 112 3.8 1.0 1.7 0.7 NA
8** 2,5-Furandicarboxyaldehyde 9.063 124 148.8c 29.9c 53.6c 11.6c 7.1c
9** 2-Furyl hydroxymethyl ketone 9.15 126 88.4c 59.5c 20.3c 34.1c 5.9c
10* 5-Ethylfuran-2-carbaldehyde 9.226 124 57.3 6.2 17.6 4.4 3.1
12* Hydroxymethylfurfural 12.199 126 625.5 216.8 162.4 31.0 11.6
  Aliphatic derivatives    26.8 11.2 22.3 7.2 5.2
3* 2,5-Hexanedione 6.094 114 24.9 10.4 20.5 7.2 5.2
4** 3-Hexen-2-one 6.286 98 1.9d 0.8d 1.9d NA NA
  Aromatic monomers    1198.8 383.5 17.0 48.2 4.5
6* Phenol 7.109 94 68.2 16.7 5.3 5.1 2.7
11* Benzoic acid 11.007 122 74.9 3.8 4.7 0.4 NA
13* 3′-Methoxyacetophenone 13.211 150 5.6 2.1 NA 0.8 NA
14* 3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzaldehyde 13.74 154 6.4 1.7 0.4 0.2 NA
15* Vanillin 14.458 152 72.8 25.8 NA NA NA
16*** Homovanillin 15.263 166 17.0e 1.9e NA NA NA
17* Acetovanillone 15.636 166 10.3 9.2 NA 0.1 NA
18* Guaiacylacetone 16.188 180 205.5 73.5 2.0 12.8 0.9
19** 1-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane-1,2-dione 16.942 194 121.0e 20.3e 2.1e 4.9e 0.2e
20*** 1-(3,4,5-Trihydroxyphenyl)propane-1,2-dione 17.522 196 23.1e 9.8e 0.2e 1.0e NA
21* Syringaldehyde 17.826 182 110.0 36.3 0.3 1.7 NA
22*** Hydroxypropiovanillone 18.189 196 83.4e 41.2e 0.7e 3.5e NA
23** Homosyringaldehyde 18.29 196 9.7f 0.9f NA 0.1f NA
24** 1-Hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propan-2-one 18.617 196 0.7e NA NA NA NA
25* Acetosyringone 18.653 196 57.8 27.0 NA 0.2 NA
26* Syringylacetone 19.055 210 88.5 29.7 0.3 9.5 0.7
27* 1-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone 19.142 194 11.3e 2.1e NA NA NA
28*** 1-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propane-1,2-dione 19.672 224 104.8f 15.4f 0.8f 5.7f NA
29*** 1-Hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propanone 20.179 226 6.7f 4.4f 0.2f 0.3f NA
30*** 2-Hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-1-one 20.701 226 37.5f 29.2f NA 1.5f NA
31*** 2-Hydroxy-1-syringyl-ethanone 21.14 226 59.7f 23.7f NA 0.4f NA
32*** 1-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-propanedione 21.517 238 4.9f 2.8f NA NA NA
33*** (4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoyl)-acetaldehyde 21.822 224 9.5f 0.4f NA NA NA
35*** 1-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)pentane-1,2-dione 23.388 252 9.5f 5.4f NA NA NA
  Aromatic dimers    45.9 14.2 NA NA NA
34*** Gentisein 22.333 244 5.6f 4.0f NA NA NA
36*** 2-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanone 24.465 274 2.4f 1.9f NA NA NA
37*** 4-Hydroxyphenyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate 26.633 304 4.8f 2.1f NA NA NA
38*** 1,2-Bis(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanone 27.666 288 5.3f 2.6f NA NA NA
39*** 1-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanon 29.714 318 4.5f 1.1f NA NA NA
40*** 2-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanone 29.725 318 2.2f 0.6f NA NA NA
41*** 2-Syringylacetosyringone 30.345 362 2.0f 0.2f NA NA NA
42*** Vanillosyringil 30.748 332 1.8f 0.2f NA NA NA
43*** 1,2-bis(4-Hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone 31.397 348 8.4f 0.6f NA NA NA
44*** Syringil 32.299 362 1.7f NA NA NA NA
45*** 1-(4-Acetyl-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethane-1,2-dione 34.138 388 2.3f 0.9f NA NA NA
46*** Phenol, 4,4′-(1,2-ethanediyl)bis[2,6-dimethoxy-,diacetate 36.744 418 4.9f NA NA NA NA
  1. * The compounds verified with standard
  2. ** The compounds compared with reference mass spectrum
  3. *** The compounds derived by the fragments
  4. aRT are shortened for the retention time
  5. bInhibitor residual was calculated based on the intergradation area of each compound
  6. cThe concentration was determined by the calibration of hydroxymethylfurfural
  7. dThe concentration was determined by the calibration of 2,5-hexanedione
  8. eThe concentration was determined by the calibration of vanillin
  9. fThe concentration was determined by the calibration of syringaldehyde