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Fig. 2 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 2

From: High-value biomass from microalgae production platforms: strategies and progress based on carbon metabolism and energy conversion

Fig. 2

Biosynthesis pathways of carotenoids and TAG in plant and microalgae. The dashed box represents R in latter structural formula. The pathways of carotenoids involved several enzymes: PSY phytoene synthase, PDS phytoene desaturase, Z-ISO ζ-carotene isomerase, ZDS ζ-carotene desaturase, CRTISO carotenoid isomerase, LCYB lycopene β-cyclase, LCYE lycopene-ε-cyclase, CHYB carotene β-hydroxylase, VDE violaxanthin de-epoxidase, BKT β-carotene ketolase, EMP methylerythritol 4-phosphate, IPP isopentenyl pyrophosphate (adapted from [149]). The pathways of TAG involved several enzymes: MAT malonyl-CoA ACP transacylase, KAS beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, KAR beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, HAD beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrase, EAR enoyl-ACP reductase, DGAT diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase

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