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Fig. 2 | Biotechnology for Biofuels

Fig. 2

From: Astaxanthin overproduction in yeast by strain engineering and new gene target uncovering

Fig. 2

The effect of new combination of CrtZ–CrtW on astaxanthin yield and ratio. a Carotenoids profiles in strain SyBE_Sc118060 (with BDC263_CrtW–Asp_CrtZ) and SyBE_Sc307001 (with BDC263_CrtW–Aa_CrtZ). Strains were cultured in YPD medium for 84 h. The yield of astaxanthin and other carotenoid intermediates was analyzed by HPLC. “Astaxanthin yield” was determined as “the astaxanthin content in single cell” with unit as mg/g DCW; “astaxanthin ratio” was determined as “the astaxanthin content (mg/g DCW) to the total carotenoids content (mg/g DCW) in single cell” as %. Other carotenoids indicated zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, lycopene and β-carotene. b The relative transcription level of CrtZ. c The relative transcription level of CrtW. d The relative ratio of CrtZ to CrtW. Cells were harvested at 12 h (early phase) and 60 h (late phase). The relative transcription level for each gene was determined as − ΔCt, using gene ALG9 for normalization. The relative ratio of CrtZ to CrtW was calculated as 2−ΔCt(CrtZ)/2−ΔCt(CrtW). All the error bars represent standard deviations calculated from three independent experiments. Significant levels of t-test: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01

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