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Table 1 Astaxanthin production by different microorganisms

From: Astaxanthin overproduction in yeast by strain engineering and new gene target uncovering

Hosts Fermentation level Astaxanthin yield (mg/g DCW) Astaxanthin ratio (%) References
Non-carotenogenic microorganisms
 E. coli Shake-flask 1.4 95 [7]
Shake-flask 1.99 90 [6]
Shake-flask 5.8 N.D. [8]
Shake-flask 7.4 96.6 [9]
Shake-flask 8.64 N.D. [10]
Shake-flask 15.1 N.D. [14]
 S. cerevisiae Shake-flask 4.7 N.D. [11]
Shake-flask 8.1 N.D. [12]
Shake-flask
5-L bioreactor
10.1
13.8
89.4 This study
 Kluyveromyces marxianus 5-L bioreactor 9.97 N.D. [5]
Carotenogenic microorganisms
 Haematococcus pluvialis Shake-flask 77.2 N.D. [3]
  1. N.D. not determined